Types of Movement

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General Movement Rules

  • In Epic Path, each square on a combat map is assumed to be five feet on a side, and five feet high.
  • All objects and creatures fit into some multiple or fraction of those five foot squares.
  • Moving around on the map costs you five feet of your movement allowance for each square you move. Your movement refreshes when you get another turn.
  • The direction you are moving does not matter: Diagonal moves are the same as straight moves and may be combined with each other in any way that makes sense to you.
  • When you have moved a distance equal to your movement rate with the movement type you are using, you must stop moving for this round, or declare a double move (see below).
  • Some squares may require more than five feet of move to enter, and some may not be entered at all.
  • The GM adjudicates any unusual circumstances.

Walk

Type of Action: Move Action

Walk refers to moving along the ground at your listed speed. For most size-medium creatures, this is 30 feet. Moving like this is a cautious walk, and is primarily used during combat. Despite this, walking provokes attacks of opportunity from enemy creatures, if you leave a space they threaten.

Characters can only walk through unoccupied spaces or spaces occupied by allies, and any walk must end in an unoccupied space, or the creature is subject to the Squeezing rules.

The terms "base land speed" and "move" are often used interchangeably with "walk". It may be useful to note that "move" is a type of action, and "walk" is a way to use a "move action" (to move along the ground at your listed speed).

Part of a Move Action

Type of Action: Special (see below)

When something can be performed as "part of a move action," it requires a move action to perform. However, this type of action specifically allows the user to use the move action to both perform the action and move up to their speed. For example, a character can walk up to his speed, and while doing so, also draw a weapon.

Nearly any action you perform with a move action (such as standing up from Prone) can also include an action which is "part of a move action".

However, if you degrade your move action to a Swift Action, take a Full Attack Action, or a Full-Round Action, you cannot perform a "part of a move action" action this round. That is, you must take an actual move action (though not necessarily to move) to include a "part of a move action" activity with it.

Some examples of actions which are "part of a move action":

  • Drawing a weapon
  • Sheathing a weapon
  • Drawing a potion or item from a bandoleer or other easy-access location
  • Pick up an item from the ground (in your space or in a space you are moving through)

Double Move

Type of Action: Full Attack Action

A double move allows a creature to move up to twice its listed speed with one (or more) of its available movement types. A double-move is considered a single action, so there is no need for the creature to stop at the end of its first move action. The creature must obey all normal rules for passing through enemy creatures, threatened squares, blocked or obstructed squares, difficult terrain, etc.

Like walking, a double move is a cautious form of movement, though it still provokes attacks of opportunity if you leave any space that is threatened by one or more enemies. Note that, because it is a single action, you can only be the target of one attack of opportunity per enemy creature you provoke, even if you leave multiple spaces threatened by the same enemy.

Run

Type of Action: Full-Round Action

A character may declare a 'run' action as a full-round action. Running allows the character to move up to four times its listed speed in a straight line (or three times her listed speed if she is wearing heavy armor). The character loses any Dexterity bonus to AC unless she has Runner (Feat), since running is a more reckless form of movement than walking. If a character declares a 'run' action, she may not make a 5-Foot Step during the same round (except with an action point, or a class ability like the prowler's "Shifty").

A character can run for a number of rounds equal to her Constitution score, but after that she must make a DC 10 Constitution check to continue running. The character must check again each round in which she continues to run, and the DC of this check increases by 1 for each check she has made previously. When she fails this check, she must stop running. A character that has run to her limit gains the Fatigued condition.

Characters using the 'run' action can't cross difficult terrain. Characters may not use the 'run' action if they cannot see.

5-Foot Step

Type of Action: Free Action (special; see below)

Taking a 5-foot step is a free action that allows you to move from your current space without provoking attacks of opportunity from nearby enemy creatures which threaten your square. However, there are some conditions which must be met in order to take a 5-foot step on your turn.

A creature can take a 5-foot step in any round in which it doesn't perform any other kind of movement. Creatures cannot take more than one 5-foot step in a round, and cannot take a 5-foot step in the same round in which it moved any distance through its own actions (e.g. Walk, Run, Charge, Spring Attack (Feat), casting a spell that moves the creature from its starting location, etc.).

Standing up from Prone is also considered movement, thus disallowing 5-foot steps.

A creature can take a 5-foot step before, during, or after its other actions in the round. A 5-foot step can even be used between attacks during a full attack action.

A creature can only take a 5-foot-step if its movement isn't hampered by difficult terrain or darkness. Any creature with a speed of 5 feet or less can't take a 5-foot step, since moving even 5 feet requires a move action for such a slow creature.

No creature may take a 5-foot step using a form of movement for which it does not have a listed speed.

If a creature has an action point which can be used to grant a move action, it may spend the action point to take a 5-foot step (using up the move action), even if it has previously moved this round, or has already taken a 5-foot step. Using action points in this manner deliberately breaks the normal rules for 5-foot steps, since action points are meant to simulate truly heroic deeds.

Some classes (e.g. Prowler) and races (e.g. Half-Orc) have special abilities which allow them to make more than one 5-foot step in a single round, or in rounds in which they have already moved. The listed rules may also specify different limitations for using the ability (e.g. the additional 5-foot step may cost a swift or move action to perform). In these cases, the specific ability's rules take precedence over the rules listed here.

Crawling

Type of Action: Move Action

While Prone, you can crawl 5 feet as a move action. Crawling provokes attacks of opportunity from enemies who threaten a square you are attempting to leave when crawling. A crawling character begins and ends the crawling movement with the Prone status condition.

Withdraw

Type of Action: Full-Round Action

When you withdraw, you can move up to double your speed. The square you start out in is not considered threatened by any opponent you can see, and therefore visible enemies do not get attacks of opportunity against you when you move from that square. Invisible enemies still get attacks of opportunity against you, and you can't withdraw from combat if you're blinded. You can't take a 5-foot step during the same round in which you withdraw.

If, during the process of withdrawing, you move out of a threatened square (other than the one you started in), enemies get attacks of opportunity as normal.

You may not withdraw using a form of movement for which you don't have a listed speed.

Note that despite the name of this action, you don't actually have to leave combat entirely.

Stepover

Type of Action: Part of a Move Action

If a creature is 2 size categories or larger than a nearby creature, it can effectively ignore that creature when moving (though moving still provokes attacks of opportunity as normal). By doing so, the larger creature can step over the smaller creature, ending its move either on or past the smaller creature. Neither creature is considered to be squeezing as a result of a stepover, because the relative size differences are so great.

If the larger creature chooses to end its movement while sharing one or more squares with smaller creatures, those creatures may remain in those spaces, and provide easy Internal Flanking for their allies. The smaller creatures may also move out of the occupied space (provoking as per normal movement rules) if they prefer, using normal movement (or they can tumble out using Acrobatics, to attempt to avoid taking attacks of opportunity). All internal spaces of a creature are considered to be threatened squares of that creature.

If the larger creature is subjected to forced movement, it is possible to make the larger creature stepover legally sized (smaller) creatures as part of that movement.

Note, however, that smaller creatures cannot enter the square of larger creatures with normal movement, but must instead use the Might skill (if they want to stop inside one of the spaces the larger creature occupies), or Overrun (Combat Maneuver) (if they want to move to an unoccupied space on the other size of the larger creature).

Overrun

Type of Action: Standard Action, or during the movement portion of a Charge, or as Part of a Move Action (special; see below).

You attempt to overrun your target, passing through its square. If combined with the move action of a charge, this will allow you to 'charge through' an opponent if successful. If performed as a standard action, you move up to your speed as part of the maneuver.

  • Overrun does not require you to move in a straight line unless you combine it with a charge.
  • You must end your movement after an Overrun in an open space. If there is no open space past your opponent in which to end your movement, you cannot perform the maneuver.
  • You can only overrun an opponent who is no greater than one size category larger than you.
  • You can overrun multiple opponents if you have enough movement to do so. Lay out your desired path and determine how many foes you wish to overrun. Each of your overrun attempts takes a cumulative -3 penalty for each enemy after the first. Thus, if you wish to overrun one enemy, there is no penalty. Overrunning two enemies incurs a -3 penalty to both checks. Overrunning three enemies incurs a -6 penalty to all three checks.
  • If you do not have the Improved Overrun feat, or a similar ability, initiating an overrun provokes an attack of opportunity from each target of your maneuver. If the attack of opportunity hits, you take damage as normal, but otherwise suffer no penalty on your Maneuver Offense for the overrun attempt.
  • If your overrun attempt fails, you are stopped in the space directly in front of the opponent that you failed to overrun. If there are other creatures occupying that space, you are shunted back along your declared path to the first unoccupied space. If your overrun attempt was part of a charge action, you can only resolve the charge attack if you can still reach your intended charge target. If that target is out of reach, the charge attack is lost.
  • When you attempt to overrun a target, it can choose to avoid you, allowing you to pass through its square without requiring a maneuver offense check. If all of your overrun targets avoid you, you complete your movement, as though you had degraded your standard action to a move action. If you performed the overrun(s) as part of a charge, you resolve your charge attack against your target as normal.
  • If your target does not avoid you, make a combat maneuver (Maneuver Offense) check. If your maneuver is successful, you move through the target's space, inflicting your normal damage for a combat maneuver. If your target occupies more than one square, one overrun check will get you through its entire space, but you must have enough movement to make the whole trip. You only deal your combat maneuver damage to an overrun creature once, regardless of how many of its squares you pass through.
  • Special: You can perform an overrun maneuver as Part of a Move Action. However, when you do so, you may only perform it against a single creature. If successful, you can only pass through its space. You do not deal your combat maneuver damage to the creature, and you cannot knock the creature prone, no matter how much you exceed its Maneuver Defense. If the move-based overrun fails, it is resolved as described above.

Overland Travel

Characters covering long distances cross-country use overland movement. Overland movement is measured in miles per hour or miles per day. A day represents 8 hours of actual travel time. For rowed watercraft, a day represents 10 hours of rowing. For a sailing ship, it represents 24 hours.

  • Walk: A character can walk 8 hours in a day of travel without a problem. Walking for longer than that can wear him out (see Forced March, below).
  • Hustle: A character can hustle for 1 hour without a problem. Hustling for a second hour in between sleep cycles deals 1 point of nonlethal damage, and each additional hour deals twice the damage taken during the previous hour of hustling. A character who takes any nonlethal damage from hustling becomes fatigued. A fatigued character can't run or charge and takes a penalty of -2 to Strength and Dexterity. Eliminating the nonlethal damage also eliminates the fatigue.
  • Run: A character can't run for an extended period of time. Attempts to run and rest in cycles effectively work out to a hustle.


Table: Movement and Distance
Speed 15 Feet 20 Feet 30 Feet 40 Feet 50 feet 60 feet 70 feet 80 feet 90 feet 100 feet
One Hour
Walk 1.5 miles 2 miles 3 miles 4 miles 5 miles 6 miles 7 miles 8 miles 9 miles 10 miles
Hustle 3 miles 4 miles 6 miles 8 miles 10 miles 12 miles 14 miles 16 miles 18 miles 20 miles
Run - - - - - - - - - -
One Day
Walk 12 miles 16 miles 24 miles 32 miles 40 miles 48 miles 56 miles 64 miles 72 miles 80 miles
Hustle - - - - - - - - - -
Run - - - - - - - - - -


  • Terrain: The terrain through which a character travels affects the distance he can cover in an hour or a day (see Table: Terrain and Overland Movement). A highway is a straight, major, paved road. A road is typically a dirt track. A trail is like a road, except that it allows only single-file travel and does not benefit a party traveling with vehicles. Trackless terrain is a wild area with no paths.


Table: Terrain and Overland Movement
Terrain Highway Road or Trail Trackless
Desert, Sandy x1 x1/2 x1/2
Forest x1 x1 x1/2
Hills x1 x3/4 x1/2
Jungle x1 x3/4 x1/4
Moor x1 x1 x3/4
Mountains x3/4 x3/4 x1/2
Plains x1 x1 x3/4
Swamp x1 x3/4 x1/2
Tundra, frozen x1 x3/4 x3/4


  • Forced March: In a day of normal walking, a character walks for 8 hours. The rest of the daylight time is spent making and breaking camp, resting, and eating. A character can walk for more than 8 hours in a day by making a forced march. For each hour of marching beyond 8 hours, a Constitution check (DC 10, +2 per extra hour) is required. If the check fails, the character takes 1d6 points of nonlethal damage. A character who takes any nonlethal damage from a forced march becomes fatigued. Eliminating the nonlethal damage also eliminates the fatigue. It's possible for a character to march into unconsciousness by pushing himself too hard.
  • Mounted Movement: A mount bearing a rider can move at a hustle. The damage it takes when doing so, however, is lethal damage, not nonlethal damage. The creature can also be ridden in a forced march, but its Constitution checks automatically fail, and the damage it takes is lethal damage. Mounts also become fatigued when they take any damage from hustling or forced marches.


Table: Mounts and Vehicles
Mount/Vehicle Per Hour Per Day
Mount (Carrying Load)
Light horse 5 miles 40 miles
Light horse (175-525 lbs.)1 3-1/2 miles 28 miles
Heavy horse 5 miles 40 miles
Heavy horse (229-690 lbs.)1 3-1/2 miles 28 miles
Pony 4 miles 32 miles
Pony (151-450 lbs.)1 3 miles 24 miles
Dog, riding 4 miles 32 miles
Dog, riding (101-300 lbs.)1 3 miles 24 miles
Cart or wagon 2 miles 16 miles
Ship
Raft or barge (poled or towed)2 1/2 mile 5 miles
Keelboat (rowed)2 1 mile 10 miles
Rowboat (rowed)2 1-1/2 miles 15 miles
Sailing ship (sailed) 2 miles 48 miles
Warship (sailed and rowed) 2-1/2 miles 60 miles
Longship (sailed and rowed) 3 miles 72 miles
Galley (rowed and sailed) 4 miles 96 miles

Space and Reach

Space

All figures are considered to occupy a given amount of space on the battlefield. Creatures of size Medium and Small take up one 5 foot square. Smaller creatures take up a smaller space: Tiny creatures take up a 2 1/2 by 2 1/2 foot space, Diminutive creatures take up a 1 foot by 1 foot space, and Fine creatures, no matter how tiny, are defined to take up a 1/2 foot by 1/2 foot space.

This means that small creatures can effectively fit multiple creatures into a 5x5 square. The space of smaller creatures were carefully chosen such they neatly "pack" into a 5x5 square. Thus, 4 tiny creatures fit into a five foot square, 25 Diminutive, and 100 Fine creatures could fit into a five foot square. For practical reasons, it is recommended that no more than four creatures be allowed into one space, no matter how tiny.

  • A Size Fine creature requires a space 1/2 foot by 1/2 foot to function without squeezing.
  • A Size Diminutive creature requires a space 1 foot by 1 foot to function.
  • A Size Tiny creature requires a space 2 and 1/2 feet by 2 and 1/2 feet to function.
  • Size Small and Medium creatures require a space 5 feet by 5 feet to function.

On the flip side of the coin, big creatures take up more space on the battlefield.

  • A Size Large creature requires a space 10 feet by ten feet to function without squeezing.
  • A Size Huge creature requires a space 15 feet by 15 feet to function without squeezing.
  • A Size gargantuan creature needs a space 20 feet by 20 feet to function without squeezing.
  • A Colossal creature requires a space 25 feet by 25 feet to remain unsqueezed.
  • A Titanic creature requires a space 30 feet by 30 feet to remain unsqueezed.

Note that creatures can be larger than Titanic, but it is recommended that all larger figures, no matter how large, be represented in table-top play by figures with a base no larger than 6x6.

  • A Titanic-Plus creature requires a space 60 feet by 60 feet to remain unsqueezed.
  • A Titanic Two-Plus Creature requires a space 120 feet by 120 feet to remain unsqueezed.
  • A Titanic Three-Plus Creature requires a space 240 feet by 240 feet etc.

This progression continues to any size you may wish, but you will likely have to resolve combats involving such creatures using the Theatre of the Mind.

Reach

Reach is how far away a figure can attack another figure with a melee weapon or other melee attack.

Size Medium and Small creatures have a reach of five feet: Namely, they can attack into and thus threaten all squares adjacent to their space.

Size Tiny and smaller figures have no effective reach: They cannot reach into adjacent squares far enough to effectively attack, and thus threaten. For very tiny creatures, they must enter a larger creatures square in order to attack and threaten it. Entering another hostile creatures space requires a Might roll to Clamber, no matter the size difference, unless you are the larger creature and you are big enough to perform a Stepover. If you wish to move through a hostile creature's space, you must declare an Overrun.

Note that a creature always has Reach to all portions of its own space, and therefore can threaten all squares that are within its space.

Large creatures typically have a longer reach. This is not written in stone, however, and every monster should be referred to in their writeup for what their reach is and how they threaten.

As a rule of thumb, creatures have a reach equal to the side of their space, IE, Large creatures reach ten feet, Huge creatures reach 15 feet, Gargantuan creatures reach 20 feet, Colossal creatures reach 25 feet, and Titanic creatures reach 30 feet.

Flanking

You create a flank any time you have maneuvered on the battlefield in such a way as to inconvenience your opponent due to the threatening actions of yourself and your allies. Flanking is the most common way in which teamwork with your friends provides you with a tangible in-game benefit.

If you have a flank against an enemy creature, you gain a +2 flanking bonus to your attack rolls against the creature. The same is true for your ally who is also flanking the creature.

Flanking only counts for melee attacks within your threatened area. If you do not threaten, you cannot flank or gain benefits from a flank. In order to threaten, you must be proficiently wielding a weapon capable of doing lethal damage in one or more of your hands, and able to perceive the target in some way. Some classes, feats, and racial abilities may present other ways to threaten squares.

To determine whether you have a flank, both you and an ally must be threatening the same creature. Trace a line from the center of a square you occupy to the center of a square your ally occupies, and if that line passes through opposite sides or opposite corners of the enemy's space, you have a flank against that enemy.

Corner squares ONLY flank with the opposite corner squares. Thus, a line which passes through a side of the creature's space and exits out a corner of its space (or passes through a corner of the creature's space and exits out a side of its space) is not a flank.

If your line to determine a flank enters the side of a target creature's space and exits an adjacent side (i.e. through the south edge of the creature's space, and out the east or west edge of its space) it is not a flank. Also, any line which passes directly along the border of a target creature's space is not a flank.

However, when determining a flank against a size-large or larger creature, you only have to be able to trace the line against any portion of the opposite side of its space. This means that, against larger creatures, it is usually easier to establish a flank against its side squares than its corner squares.

Only allies which threaten the creature you are threatening can provide flanks. NPC's who are not allies, or allies who are not threatening the creature in question, cannot contribute to a flank. Creatures not wielding a weapon which threatens, or that have a reach of 0 can't flank an opponent because they don't threaten adjacent squares. (Such creatures only threaten squares in their own space.)

If a creature is size-large or larger, it can choose which of the squares in its space it wishes to determine flanks from (i.e. it does not draw its line from the center of its total space, but from the center of any one square within its space). Thus, larger creatures often have an easier time flanking smaller creatures.

If a single square contains more than one creature, and you establish a legal flank to that square, you flank all creatures in that square.

Reach and Flanking

Creatures with reach (or reach weapons) don't have to be adjacent to a creature they're attempting to flank.

In addition, when determining whether the flank a creature or not, they can trace a line from any corner of their own space to any corner of an ally's space who is also threatening the target creature. If this line passes through opposite sides (or opposite corners) of the creature they are attempting to flank, it a successful flank. As with normal flanks, a line that only passes through adjacent sides of a target creature's space, or only passes directly along a target creature's border, does not grant a flank.

Note that size large or larger creatures with reach can start this line from any corner of any square they occupy.

Internal Flanking

In cases where there are very large size differences between foes on the field (i.e. 2 size categories or more), it is possible for smaller foes to be inside the space of a larger figure. In such cases, then neither figure is considered to be Squeezing.

This often occurs because the larger creature makes use of the Stepover feature to move over top of, stop in the space of, or move past a sufficiently small creature.

For a smaller creature to enter a larger creature's space requires the Clamber feature of Might. Creatures wishing to pass all the way through another creature's space must use the Overrun maneuver. Simply avoiding attacks of opportunity while moving through threatened squares requires the Tumbling feature of Acrobatics.

While inside the space of a creature two size categories larger than itself (or more), a smaller creature can gain internal flanking against the larger creature if he has an ally that threatens the larger creature from any space.

The larger creature flanks the smaller (internal) creature if any of the larger creature's allies are able to threaten the square the smaller creature occupies. The larger creature's ally also gets a flank against the smaller (internal) creature, in this case.

ALL of any creature's occupied squares are considered to be part of its threatened squares.

Alternative Movement Types

A number of alternative movement types exist, allowing a wide variety of surfaces and environments to be more efficiently navigated. Note that these movement types do not provide any useful benefits to movement outside of their native element. That is, a creature with flight is not a better swimmer because of it, and similarly, a creature with earth glide can't move through the air unless it also has flight.

Burrow

Climb

Fly

Swim

Teleport

Combining Movement Types

If a creature has more than one movement type, it may sometimes wish to use more than one movement type during a single move action. This is allowed, using the following rules:

1. The cost to enter each square in the creature's path is subtracted from the speed of all movement types the creature possesses, regardless of which type of movement is used to actually enter that square. Difficult terrain or other movement-impairing obstacles are counted in the cost to enter the square.
2. Once a movement type has had its speed reduced to 0, it can no longer be used during this move action. Remaining movement types with available speed can still be used, if the appropriate terrain is available in the next square of the chosen path.
3. A creature must end its movement in its current square if the next square it wishes to enter requires a movement type whose remaining speed has been reduced to 0.

By way of example, let us imagine a creature with a Walk speed of 30 feet, and a Lesser Swim speed of 120 feet.

  • As a single move action, that creature could Walk on the ground up to 30 feet, and if the next square it entered was swimmable water (e.g. a lake), it could swim up to 90 additional feet during the same move action.
    • If the lake requires more than 30 feet of Walk speed to get to, the creature cannot reach the lake in a single move action, even though it still has Lesser Swim speed available to it.
  • Conversely, if it uses a move action to first swim 35 or more feet, it cannot use its Walk speed during any later portion of that move action, as its Walk speed has been reduced to 0.

Special Movement Rules

Encumbrance

If your character is carrying enough weight, their movement will be slowed. There are three categories of encumbrance, Light, Medium, and Heavy. The pound value of these categories are determined by the character's Strength score on the Carrying Capacity table. This number can be increased by increasing the character's Strength score, or by placing one or more skill ranks into the Might skill. Some magic items may also improve a character's carrying capacity.

Each of the encumbrance categories affects your movement exactly as the armor of the same name category. Namely, Medium encumbrance reduces your movement by five feet if your base move is above 20 feet, and Heavy encumbrance reduces your movement by ten feet if your Walk speed is above 20 feet and five feet otherwise. Note that these movement penalties stack with the movement penalties for wearing medium or heavy armor!

For example: Wearing heavy armor and carrying enough weight to place you in Medium encumbrance reduces your movement by 15 feet if your Walk speed is above twenty feet or 10 feet if your Walk speed is twenty feet or below.

If these penalties reduce your base move to zero, you can no longer use a move action to move. You must now use a standard action to move five feet, and can move no more than five feet per round unless you use an action point to take two standard actions in a round.

In addition to the above effects, weight-based encumbrance lowers your speed when you take a Run action. A normal Run action is made at 5x the character's Walk speed. However, if that character has medium encumbrance, the multiplier is reduced by one to x4. Heavy weight encumbrance lowers the Run multiplier by two to x3. These penalties also stack with the reductions from wearing medium (-1 to the multiplier) or heavy armor (-2 to the multiplier). As a result, a creature wearing heavy armor and carrying a heavy encumbrance has a Run multiplier of only x1, meaning they gain no additional speed when performing the Run action.

Squeezing

Entering a square which requires you to squeeze counts as difficult terrain.

If you end your turn in the same space as another creature, and each of you normally takes up the full space, you are both considered to be squeezing. Squeezing can only occur if the two creatures sharing a space both agree to allow that to happen, or one creature is unable to prevent it (such as being unconscious or stunned). Even if one of the two creatures sharing a space is prone, both creatures are treated as squeezing. However, if one of the creatures is dead, the squeezing rules do not apply. Instead, the dead creature is treated as rough terrain (GM's may elect to ignore the 'dead creatures are rough terrain' rule, since it's kind of annoying to keep track of).

Squeezing can also occur when a character tries to fit through a space that is designed for creatures one size category smaller than he is, but wider than his head. No creature can pass through a space narrower than its head (unless it has some special ability allowing it to break this rule). An example of a narrow space might be a door designed for size-small creatures. A medium-sized creature could fit through there, but their ability to attack or defend themselves while doing so would be greatly impaired. A large-sized creature couldn't fit through the size-small door at all.


Squeezing:   Entering a square which requires squeezing is treated as difficult terrain. While squeezing, a creature suffers a -4 penalty to attack rolls and a -4 penalty to AC.

Falling

Creatures that fall onto a solid surface take 1d6 points of damage per 10 feet fallen, to a maximum determined by the GM. In normal air, on the Prime Material, a maximum of 20d6 is recommended. Falling in the Aether, where there is no normal air, may have no maximum limit at all, while falling in the Plane of Earth might be flat-out impossible. This may also be modified by the surface being impacted. Falling onto jagged broken obsidian shards might add +2 per die, a jumble of broken tree-trunks or solid stone may add +1 per die. Normal unremarkable 'ground' is base damage. Soft loam or deep grass might remove -1 per die. Falling allows no saving throw to reduce the damage, although you may attempt an Acrobatics roll to take some of the sting off (see below). Falling Damage is physical bludgeoning damage in most cases, although falling onto something sharp might change that to piercing or slashing at the GM's discretion. In most cases, DR does not reduce Falling Damage unless the DM rules in your favor. Internal damage sucks. Creatures that take lethal damage from a fall land in a prone position.

If a character deliberately jumps instead of merely slipping or falling, the damage is the same but the first 1d6 is Non-Lethal Damage. A DC 15 Acrobatics check allows the character to avoid any damage from the first 10 feet fallen and converts any damage from the second 10 feet to Non-Lethal Damage. Thus, a character who slips from a ledge 30 feet up takes 3d6 damage. If the same character deliberately jumps, he takes 1d6 points of Non-Lethal Damage and 2d6 points of lethal damage. And if the character leaps down with a successful Acrobatics check, he takes only 1d6 points of Non-Lethal Damage and 1d6 points of lethal damage from the plunge.

Falls onto yielding surfaces (soft ground, mud) usually take less Falling Damage (see above) and also convert the first 1d6 of damage to Non-Lethal Damage. This reduction is cumulative with reduced damage due to deliberate jumps and the Acrobatics skill.

A character cannot cast a spell while falling, unless the fall is greater than 500 feet or the spell is an immediate action, such as Feather Fall (Spell). Casting a spell while falling requires a Caster Check to concentrate with a DC equal to 20 + the spell's level. Casting Teleport (Spell) or a similar spell while falling does not end your momentum, it just changes your location, meaning that you still take Falling Damage, even if you arrive atop a solid surface.

Collisions

Adventurers frequently bash themselves into things through various circumstances. For example, a Barbarian sees a Drow Matriarch with no escorts, so he charges her full speed...only to find the Force Wall in the way. He smashes into the wall full speed, but how much does that hurt? This is treated as a collision, which is a more general case of Falling damage. In this case, since he was in a Charge maneuver which reduced his armor class, he was not considered to be moving cautiously. As a result, he takes 1d6 of damage per ten feet of his speed at the moment of the collision. If he has a base speed of 50 feet and a Haste spell to raise his speed to 80, then he takes 8d6 from this collision. Ouch.

It's made even worse by the Matriarch laughing....

Note that charges, overruns and other deliberate cases of a character ramming into things never causes damage to the character who instigates it, nor are the collision rules applied to the creature or object being rammed into. Collision rules only apply if the collision is unexpected, or outside of the control of the character. Combat maneuvers already deal damage, so the harm caused by an overrun is already built into the rules of that maneuver.

Collisions only happen when you are not moving in a cautious way. If you are swept away by a raging current or massive blast of wind in the Plane of Air, you are not moving cautiously. If you are making a Charge, you are not moving cautiously. Beware the Run maneuver! Running is VERY fast movement, and since you lose your Dex, you are not considered to be cautious. Running full speed into a Wall of Force can be deadly. The GM adjudicates any strange or unusual cases.

If a character is moving in a cautious manner, i.e., a normal move at his base speed, he would take no damage at all from bumping into things; the reward for moving cautiously! Note that making a double-move (converting your standard action to a move action and moving twice) is also considered cautious movement.

Collisions most obviously occur when a player character fails a Ride skill roll or is otherwise dismounted and falls off a horse. To put it mildly, falling off a horse at a full gallop, even though it is only a few feet down, still hurts a LOT. Similarly, falls off wagons and other close-to-the ground vehicles are resolved using collision rules, as are cases where wagons run into you. Indeed, collisions are used for many things, such as being swept away down a boulder-strewn gully by a flash flood, or being run over by a huge round stone that rolled out of the ceiling in a lost temple, or when that nobles carriage runs wild down the streets, or even when the hapless adventurer is being dragged along the ground behind a racing horse. Any time an object bangs into an adventurer in an uncontrolled and violent fashion, this can be resolved using these collision rules.

Note, being dragged by a horse really sucks; you want to get out of that as soon as possible.

Collisions rarely occur between creatures, who are assumed to duck, dodge, or otherwise allow a hurtling character to pass by.

Falling into Water

Falls into water are handled somewhat differently. If the water is at least 10 feet deep, the first 20 feet of falling does no damage. The next 20 feet of falling deals Non-Lethal Damage (1d3 per 10-foot increment). Beyond that, Falling Damage is lethal damage (1d6 per additional 10-foot increment).

Characters who deliberately dive into water take no damage on a successful DC 15 Swim check or DC 15 Acrobatics check, so long as the water is at least 10 feet deep for every 30 feet fallen. The DC of the check, however, increases by 5 for every 50 feet of the dive. See Acrobatics for more details.

Falling Objects

Object Size Damage
Tiny 1d6
Small 2d6
Medium 3d6
Large 4d6
Huge 6d6
Gargantuan 8d6
Colossal 10d6
Titanic 15d6


Just as characters take damage when they fall more than 10 feet, so too do they take damage when they are hit by falling objects. Note that falling object damage is resolved differently from collisions, because falling objects are typically thrown by a bad guy, rather than being environmental hazards.

Objects that fall upon characters deal damage based on their size and the distance they have fallen. Table: Damage from Falling Objects determines the amount of damage dealt by an object based on its size. Note that this assumes that the object is made of dense, heavy material, such as stone. Objects made of lighter materials might deal as little as half the listed damage, subject to GM discretion. For example, a Huge boulder that hits a character deals 6d6 points of damage, whereas a Huge wooden wagon might deal only 3d6 damage. In addition, if an object falls less than 30 feet, it deals half the listed damage. If an object falls more than 150 feet, it deals double the listed damage. Note that a falling object takes the same amount of damage as it deals.

Dropping an object on, or throwing an object at, a creature requires a ranged touch attack. Such attacks generally have a range increment of 20 feet. If an object falls on a creature (instead of being thrown), that creature can make a DC 15 Reflex save to halve the damage if he is aware of the object. Falling objects that are part of a trap use the trap rules instead of these general guidelines.

Difficult Terrain

Some terrain is too tricky to move through at normal speed. Such terrain is called "difficult" though this can encompass many scenarios: obstacles, slippery or unstable footing, steep slopes, etc. When moving through difficult terrain, each square moved into counts as two squares (10 feet), effectively reducing the distance that a character can cover in a move. Characters cannot run or charge through difficult terrain, nor can they take 5-foot steps.

Impeded Terrain

Sometimes the terrain is so difficult that you must clamber over it on hands and knees, rather than just carefully navigating it. Examples include junk-strewn rooms, vine-choked jungles, or waist-deep bogs. A creature wishing to move through such terrain must use a full-round action to move 5 feet. This is not treated as a 5-foot step and does provoke attacks of opportunity. Creatures attempting to move through impeded terrain cannot run or charge through such terrain, nor can they maintain any stances, including stealth.

Note that impeded terrain is not the same as blocked terrain, such as walls, locked doors or closed portcullises.

Some impeded terrain may allow an Acrobatics (if obstacles), Might (if climbing) or Movement (if swimming or flying) check to move more than 5 feet per full-round action, at the GM's discretion. As a general rule, however, spending a full round to move 5 feet does not require any sort of skill check.

Blocked Terrain

Blocked terrain is terrain it is impossible to move into without such things as incorporeal powers, burrowing, earth glide, extremely small size, extremely large size, etc. Note that teleport can move through blocked terrain as long as line of sight and line of effect rules are satisfied. Further note that many types of blocked terrain also block line of sight and/or line of effect. The GM adjudicates any unusual cases. Examples of blocked terrain include solid walls, natural stone or dirt, doors, shutters, gates, and portcullises, roofs and roads, pillars, columns, and statues, etc.

Note that weapons with the Unwieldy quality, such as the Long Whip, cannot be used while adjacent to blocked terrain. Weapons with the Cumbersome quality, such as the Great Whip, suffer a -4 penalty to attack rolls made while adjacent to blocked terrain.

Cutting Corners

On a square grid, in clear terrain, a character may move into any of the eight squares adjacent to their current square. Sometimes, however, a character will want to move diagonally from one space to another, and a blocked space will occupy a space in between. Cutting a corner of a blocked space may or may not be possible, depending on the object causing the space to be blocked.

If the blocked space which you are attempting to move diagonally past is completely filled, such as the corner of a dressed stone hallway, then you cannot cut a corner to skim past that space. Most buildings and man-made areas feature corners which cannot be cut.

If the space is blocked but not completely filled, such as a rounded cave wall, a statue, a large tree or rounded pillar, then you can still cut the corner to move diagonally past it.

Note that cutting a corner around a blocked space isn't a way to pass through blocked terrain, it is a way of skirting the edges of it. Thus, you cannot cut a corner to somehow pass through a portcullis or closed door.

Hazardous Terrain

Some squares, such as pit openings, lava or the edge of a cliff, or a trapped space are considered hazardous terrain. While the exact effects of moving into a hazardous terrain space can vary, they are inevitably undesirable. Hazardous terrain is not the same as difficult, impeded or blocked terrain, as a character can freely move into spaces of hazardous terrain; they just don't want to. Weapons with the Unwieldy or Cumbersome qualities treat adjacent hazardous terrain as a normal space and can operate unimpeded.

Occupied Squares

An occupied square is any square which falls within the allocated space for a creature's Size. Medium and smaller creatures Occupy one square. Large creatures occupy 4 squares, Huge creatures occupy nine squares, Gargantuan creatures occupy sixteen squares, Colossal creatures occupy twenty-five squares, and Titanic creatures occupy thirty-six squares. Note that occupied squares are NOT blocked, impassable, impeded, or even difficult terrain simply because they are occupied. To enter another creatures squares is not simple, but is possible. Refer to the sections on squeezing, stepover, acrobatics, internal flanking, threatened area, etc.

Threatened Area

To threaten an area, a creature must be capable of inflicting harm upon a foe in a legal fashion as a reactive action, namely, be able to take attacks of opportunity. Usually this requires a creature to be proficiently wielding a melee weapon or possess natural attacks. Ranged attacks almost never threaten squares, and if they do, require special abilities or feats to do so.

Creatures who can make legal attacks of opportunity threaten all spaces they have Reach to and all spaces they occupy. Yes, moving around inside the space of a hostile creature provokes attacks of opportunity, so be careful when seeking that internal flank.

Forced Movement

Most forced movement is handled via the Combat Maneuver system, but there is an added class of "automatic" forced movement which is occasionally available via spells, class abilities, monster powers, etc. All forced movement allows the attacking creature to move an enemy one or more squares from its current location.

It is not normally possible to resist forced movement at all, unless you have a special power or ability which specifically opposes such movement. No matter how the forced movement is inflicted, either by Combat Manuevers, spells, class abilities, etc, all forced movement is resisted by any special powers or abilities that resist forced movement. Such resistance applies after Maneuver Offense vs Maneuver Defense rolls are resolved. Note that forced movement reductions stack, so if a character has a means of reducing forced movement from more than one source, such as a class ability or magic item, the character uses the sum of the reductions offered.

Forced movement ignores the penalties to movement for rough terrain, but must be into unoccupied squares of a size and shape equal to the creature being forcibly moved. If there are no unoccupied squares available for the creature to be legally forced into, the forced movement does not take place.

A creature subjected to forced movement may elect to fall prone at any time during the forced movement (including its starting square), immediately ending the forced movement. This tactic is especially useful to avoid being forced into a hazardous square, such as a pit or a trap.

A creature which has voluntarily dropped to Prone can elect to ignore any forced movement inflicted upon it as long as it remains prone. However, a creature which was made prone involuntarily gains no such resistance to forced movement until it has had an opportunity to stand up (usually a move action). Note the creature doesn't need to stand up (and, indeed, doing so would remove its resistance to forced movement), merely have the action available that would allow it to stand up.

Creatures which are immune to prone can still use this option and are not prone afterwards, making them incidentally immune to forced movement. Monsters with roles that render them immune to status conditions can use this tactic, for example. Tank role monsters are immune to all status conditions, so they can use the 'fall prone' election to stop forced movement at any time, and then are not prone, and can do it again as often as required.

Forced movement never provokes attacks of opportunity, unless there is a feat or ability in play which pierces this.

Push

A Push is forced movement in which a creature is moved by an attacker in a path away from the attacker. Each square of this forced movement must be further away from the attacker's square(s) than the square being exited. If any squares in the desired path are blocked or occupied by any creatures (friend or foe) the push ends in the square prior to this obstruction.

Pull

A Pull is forced movement in which a creature is moved by an attacker in a path toward the attacker. Each square of this forced movement must be closer to the attacker's square(s) than the square being exited. If any squares in the desired path are blocked or occupied by any creatures (friend or foe) the pull ends in the square prior to this obstruction.

Slide

A Slide is forced movement in which a creature is moved by an attacker in any path the attacker wishes. If any squares in the desired path are blocked or occupied by any creatures (friend or foe) the slide ends in the square prior to this obstruction.

Three Dimensional Movement

For three dimensional movement, it is strongly recommended to use the above variant rules for counting movement, distance, and areas of effect. The reason is simple: when calculating the range between two objects at different altitudes, using the old rules required trigonometry or guesswork. In the 1 for 1 counting rules, the different altitudes can be ignored, as long as the difference in altitude is equal to or less than the difference between the figures.

For example, a ranger wants to shoot an orc who is hiding thirty feet high in a tree. In these rules, as long as the ranger is thirty feet or more away from the base of the tree, the range is simply defined as the range to the tree's square. If the ranger is closer than thirty feet to the base of the tree, the range is simply thirty feet, no matter where he moves around the base of the tree. This is a tremendous simplification and makes gameplay much faster and smoother.

For this reason, it is strongly recommended that referees enforce 'altitude ceilings' in three dimensional encounters. This is readily accomplished inside large buildings and caves, etc. Outdoors, it is usually simplest to abstract 'up' and 'down', so that the maximum distance between two combatants is always defined as the distance between their figures on the map. Alternatively, the referee may rule by fiat that cloud cover, or a tree canopy, or hazardous smoke/vapor, etc, limits the maximum altitude at which combat is possible.

If these rules are followed, then range and area of effect in three-dimensional movement is no different than in 2-dimensional movement. All squares are visualized as cubes. Moving from cube to cube may be done from face-to-face, or edge to edge, or corner to corner. All moves and ranges are counted as 1 for 1.

As a corollary to this, when three dimensional movement is being used, all characters are considered to be represented as cubes in space, not squares on the map. The cube is a number of squares high equal to the number of squares per side of the figure's size.

Thus, a small or medium creature occupies a cube five feet on a side. A large creature occupies a cube ten feet on a side. A huge creature occupies a cube fifteen feet on a side. Larger creatures continue using this same progression. For game balance reasons, the same number of smaller creatures will fill a cube as fill a same size square. Two Small creatures may occupy a five foot cube without squeezing. Four tiny creatures fill a cube, etc. This rule is to prevent dozens and dozens of enemies from filling a single space.

This system makes it much easier to accommodate feats of derring-do. For example, how high up is a Huge Elephant's back? Fifteen feet! So if a player character jumps to the back of an elephant, that is how far away they are from the ground. The bottom of the character's cube rests upon the top of the elephants cube, and reach and range are determined accordingly.

All cubes that border either a side, edge, or corner are considered adjacent in three dimensional movement.

Reach now affects all adjacent cubes, including the one above your head (and beneath your feet) as well as the ones above and below your adjacent squares.

Areas of effect, defined above as squares, are simply counted as cubes in three dimensional movement. Odd-sized cubes are centered upon a target cube, even-sized cubes are targeted upon the three-axis intersection of eight cubes.

Forced Movement In 3-D

Generally speaking, most forced movement occurs in two dimensions, along the ground. This is true even if the forced movement occurs underwater, as long as the creature being moved is on the bottom of the body of water.

Creatures in the middle of water, with no nearby surfaces, who are subjected to forced movement are moved laterally, as though they were in two dimensions. While this limitation is completely artificial, it makes it simpler to track a battle. Since you can't suffer Falling Damage when swimming underwater, there's no actual tactical value for treating the environment as truly 3-D, even though it is. Adding 3-D elements to such an encounter needlessly complicates it, without providing any benefit.

In cases where the forced movement occurs to a creature in the air, the forced movement is nearly always directly down. In cases where the type of forced movement (such as a Push) could not be downwards, (for example, a creature on the ground Pushes a creature in the air), then the Pushed creature moves directly up.

Creatures underground cannot be forcibly moved into blocked terrain (such as the ground) even if the acting creature and the target creature have burrowing move speeds (like Earth Glide). Forced movement can never be used to force someone into blocked terrain.

Some special abilities exist which allow forced movement to use three-dimensions. For example, a giant may have the ability to knock a creature up into the air, even when it starts off on the ground. Refer to the special ability for the exact rules to follow in these cases.

GM's should strive to keep this as simple as possible, and limit 3-D forced movement to only directly up or directly down whenever possible. Keep in mind how complicated it can become to track everyone's exact elevation, and evaluate that against how useful or memorable that complexity actually makes the battle. In most cases, 2-D is complicated enough.