Ability Scores

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Epic Path uses the standard array of ability scores: Strength (STR), Dexterity (DEX), Constitution (CON), Intelligence (INT), Wisdom (WIS) and Charisma (CHA). Each ability score is given an initial value during Character Creation, but can be raised, either temporarily or permanently, by character level, class abilities, feats, spells and spell effects, magic items, etc.

Ability scores are split into two categories: physical and mental, each of which has three of the ability scores:

  • Physical: STR, DEX and CON
  • Mental: INT, WIS and CHA

Temporary Ability Scores

Temporary adjustments to your ability scores are caused by any effect which has a duration, such as a spell effect, or an effect which isn't always active, such as a bonus from a magic item that has limited uses per day.

In addition, for the first 24 hours of wearing a magic item which boosts ability scores, the ability score increase granted is treated as a temporary ability score. Once the character has attuned to the item (by wearing it for 24 hours) the ability score increase granted by the item is considered a permanent ability score.

Permanent Ability Scores

Permanent ability scores are pretty self-explanatory -- they're ability scores that don't wear off, don't have a limited duration, or are part of the character's innate ability scores. The value of a character's ability scores is usually the sum of their starting values, any increases they've gained from levels, feats, or class abilities, and (non-temporary) increases granted by magic items.

Some abilities and effects ignore temporary ability scores, and are based purely on permanent ability scores. It is therefore important to keep track of your permanent ability scores separately from your temporary scores.

Ability Modifiers

The ability modifier is the numerical advantage or disadvantage that an ability score provides to your character when that ability score is used to perform skills, saving throws, combat maneuvers, and other activities. It is calculated by subtracting 10 from the ability score, and then dividing the remainder by 2, dropping fractions. For example, the ability modifier for a Strength of 15 is +2 (15 - 10 = 5 / 2 = 2.5 rounded down to 2). In the entries below, each ability score details how its ability modifier is used. You can also refer to the table below for a listing of the modifier for each ability score value.

It is important to keep an eye out for abilities and rules which call for an ability score versus an ability modifier. Using an ability score is rare, but it does happen. For example: the starting hit points for a 1st level character uses a character's Constitution ability score, but all future levels' hit point increases use their Constitution ability modifier.

When an ability score is permanently increased to a higher ability modifier, the benefit of that modifier is retroactively applied for each character level. For example, if a character's Constitution score is raised from a 15 to a 16 permanently, raising their modifier from +2 to +3, they would gain 1 hit point for each character level they currently have, as if they had always had that extra Constitution each time they leveled. Similarly, if a character's Intelligence increased to a higher modifier, they would gain an additional skill point for each character level they currently have. Refer to the individual Ability Score entries below to see how increases impact the character's other attributes.

Caster Ability Score

Spell-casting character classes always use one particular ability score modifier (sometimes referred to as their 'caster stat mod') when calculating the saving throw difficulty class (DC) of their spells. In addition, if their caster ability score is high enough, they may gain the ability to cast bonus spells, extracts or poultices per day based on a high ability score in their primary spell casting stat. The spell casting classes and the primary casting stat for each is listed below:

Class Stat
Alchemist INT
Bard CHA
Cleric WIS
Druid WIS
Paladin CHA
Ranger WIS
Sorcerer CHA
Wizard INT

Bonus Spell Slots per Day

Spell-casting character classes who possess a high primary casting ability score may qualify for bonus spells (or extracts, or poultices, depending on their class), per the table below. These bonus spells are an additional number of spells the caster may cast each day. They do not affect how many spells the character knows, only how many spells they can cast. Note that, even if a character's caster ability score is very high, they may not cast spells from spell levels higher than their current level in their caster class allows. Once they gain a high enough level to get access to the higher spell levels, any bonus spells they qualify for are also unlocked at that time, and are added to their number of spells castable per day.

For example, a 3rd level wizard with an Intelligence score of 18 gets 1 additional castable spell per day of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th spell levels. However, because they are only 3rd level, they only have access to 2nd level spells from their caster class, and therefore the bonus 3rd and 4th level spells from their high Intelligence score are unavailable to them until they are high enough level to cast 3rd and 4th level spells.
Table: Ability Modifiers and Bonus Spells
Ability Score Modifier 0th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th
6-7 -2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
8-9 -1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
10-11 0 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
12-13 1 - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
14-15 2 - 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
16-17 3 - 1 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
18-19 4 - 1 1 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - -
20-21 5 - 2 1 1 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - -
22-23 6 - 2 2 1 1 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - -
24-25 7 - 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 - - - - - - - - - -
26-27 8 - 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 - - - - - - - - -
28-29 9 - 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 - - - - - - - -
30-31 10 - 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 - - - - - - -
32-33 11 - 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 - - - - - -
34-35 12 - 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 - - - - -
36-37 13 - 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 - - - -
38-39 14 - 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 - - -
40-41 15 - 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 - -
42-43 16 - 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 -
44-45 17 - 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
46-47 18 - 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1
48-49 19 - 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1
50-51 20 - 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1
52-53 21 - 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2
54-55 22 - 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2
56-57 23 - 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2
58-59 24 - 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2
60-61 25 - 7 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3

Strength (STR)

Used In
Adds to player to-hit rolls and damage rolls with melee attacks and melee touch attacks. Adds to damage for thrown weapons (but not to-hit rolls). Determines how much a character can carry without being encumbered (see below). Some skills make use of the character's Strength modifier.

Carrying Capacity and Encumbrance

Score Modifier Light Load (lbs.) Medium Load (lbs.) Heavy Load (lbs.) Max Drag (lbs.)
(no score) - - - - -
0 - 0 0 0 0
1 -5 0 - 3 4 - 6 7 - 10 50
2 -4 0 - 6 7 - 13 14 - 20 100
3 -4 0 - 10 11 - 20 21 - 30 150
4 -3 0 - 13 14 - 26 27 - 40 200
5 -3 0 - 16 17 - 33 34 - 50 250
6 -2 0 - 20 21 - 40 41 - 60 300
7 -2 0 - 23 24 - 46 47 - 70 350
8 -1 0 - 26 27 - 53 54 - 80 400
9 -1 0 - 30 31 - 60 61 - 90 450
10 0 0 - 33 34 - 66 67 - 100 500
11 0 0 - 38 39 - 76 77 - 115 575
12 1 0 - 43 44 - 86 87 - 130 650
13 1 0 - 50 51 - 100 101 - 150 750
14 2 0 - 58 59 - 116 117 - 175 875
15 2 0 - 66 67 - 133 134 - 200 1,000
16 3 0 - 76 77 - 153 154 - 230 1,150
17 3 0 - 86 87 - 173 174 - 260 1,300
18 4 0 - 100 101 - 200 201 - 300 1,500
19 4 0 - 116 117 - 233 234 - 350 1,750
20 5 0 - 133 134 - 266 267 - 400 2,000
21 5 0 - 153 154 - 306 307 - 460 2,300
22 6 0 - 173 174 - 346 347 - 520 2,600
23 6 0 - 200 201 - 400 401 - 600 3,000
24 7 0 - 233 234 - 466 467 - 700 3,500
25 7 0 - 266 267 - 533 534 - 800 4,000
26 8 0 - 306 307 - 613 614 - 920 4,600
27 8 0 - 346 347 - 693 694 - 1,040 5,200
28 9 0 - 400 401 - 800 801 - 1,200 6,000
29 9 0 - 466 467 - 933 934 - 1,400 7,000
30 10 0 - 532 533 - 1,066 1,067 - 1,600 8,000
31 10 0 - 612 613 - 1,224 1,225 - 1,840 9,200
32 11 0 - 692 693 - 1,384 1,385 - 2,080 10,400
33 11 0 - 800 801 - 1,600 1,601 - 2,400 12,000
34 12 0 - 932 933 - 1,864 1,865 - 2,800 14,000
35 12 0 - 1,064 1,065 - 2,132 2,133 - 3,200 16,000
36 13 0 - 1,224 1,225 - 2,452 2,453 - 3,680 18,400
37 13 0 - 1,384 1,385 - 2,772 2,773 - 4,160 20,800
38 14 0 - 1,600 1,601 - 3,200 3,201 - 4,800 24,000
39 14 0 - 1,864 1,865 - 3,732 3,733 - 5,600 28,000
40 15 0 - 2,128 2,129 - 4,264 4,265 - 6,400 32,000
41 15 0 - 2,448 2,449 - 4,896 4,897 - 7,360 36,800
42 16 0 - 2,768 2,769 - 5,536 5,537 - 8,320 41,600
43 16 0 - 3,200 3,201 - 6,400 6,401 - 9,600 48,000
44 17 0 - 3,728 3,729 - 7,456 7,457 - 11,200 56,000
45 17 0 - 4,256 4,257 - 8,528 8,529 - 12,800 64,000
46 18 0 - 4,896 4,897 - 9,808 9,809 - 14,720 73,600
47 18 0 - 5,536 5,537 - 11,088 11,089 - 16,640 83,200
48 19 0 - 6,400 6,401 - 12,800 12,801 - 19,200 96,000
49 19 0 - 7,456 7,457 - 14,928 14,929 - 22,400 112,000
50 20 0 - 8,512 8,513 - 17,056 17,057 - 25,600 128,000
51 20 0 - 9,792 9,793 - 19,584 19,585 - 29,440 147,200
52 21 0 - 11,072 11,073 - 22,144 22,145 - 33,280 166,400
53 21 0 - 12,800 12,801 - 25,600 25,601 - 38,400 192,000
54 22 0 - 14,912 14,913 - 29,824 29,825 - 44,800 224,000
55 22 0 - 17,024 17,025 - 34,112 34,113 - 51,200 256,000
56 23 0 - 19,584 19,585 - 39,232 39,233 - 58,880 294,400
57 23 0 - 22,144 22,145 - 44,352 44,353 - 66,560 332,800
58 24 0 - 25,600 25,601 - 51,200 51,201 - 76,800 384,000
59 24 0 - 29,824 29,825 - 59,712 59,713 - 89,600 448,000
60 25 0 - 34,048 34,049 - 68,224 68,225 - 102,400 512,000
61 25 0 - 39,168 39,169 - 78,336 78,337 - 117,760 588,800
62 26 0 - 44,288 44,289 - 88,576 88,577 - 133,120 665,600
63 26 0 - 51,200 51,201 - 102,400 102,401 - 153,600 768,000
64 27 0 - 59,648 59,649 - 119,296 119,297 - 179,200 896,000
65 27 0 - 68,096 68,097 - 136,448 136,449 - 204,800 1,024,000
66 28 0 - 78,336 78,337 - 156,928 156,929 - 235,520 1,177,600
67 28 0 - 88,576 88,577 - 177,408 177,409 - 266,240 1,331,200
68 29 0 - 102,400 102,401 - 204,800 204,801 - 307,200 1,536,000
69 29 0 - 119,296 119,297 - 238,848 238,849 - 358,400 1,792,000
70 30 0 - 136,192 136,193 - 272,896 272,897 - 409,600 2,048,000
71 30 0 - 156,672 156,673 - 313,344 313,345 - 471,040 2,355,200
72 31 0 - 177,152 177,153 - 354,304 354,305 - 532,480 2,662,400
73 31 0 - 204,800 204,801 - 409,600 409,601 - 614,400 3,072,000
74 32 0 - 238,592 238,593 - 477,184 477,185 - 716,800 3,584,000
75 32 0 - 272,384 272,385 - 545,792 545,793 - 819,200 4,096,000
76 33 0 - 313,344 313,345 - 627,712 627,713 - 942,080 4,710,400
77 33 0 - 354,304 354,305 - 709,632 709,633 - 1,064,960 5,324,800
78 34 0 - 409,600 409,601 - 819,200 819,201 - 1,228,800 6,144,000
79 34 0 - 477,184 477,185 - 955,392 955,393 - 1,433,600 7,168,000
80 35 0 - 544,768 544,769 - 1,091,584 1,091,585 - 1,638,400 8,192,000
81 35 0 - 626,688 626,689 - 1,253,376 1,253,377 - 1,884,160 9,420,800
82 36 0 - 708,608 708,609 - 1,417,216 1,417,217 - 2,129,920 10,649,600
83 36 0 - 819,200 819,201 - 1,638,400 1,638,401 - 2,457,600 12,288,000
84 37 0 - 954,368 954,369 - 1,908,736 1,908,737 - 2,867,200 14,336,000
85 37 0 - 1,089,536 1,089,537 - 2,183,168 2,183,169 - 3,276,800 16,384,000

Dexterity (DEX)

Used In
Adds to a character's Armor Class value (though this may be reduced by worn armor, if the armor has a Max Dex value lower than the character's dexterity modifier). Adds to Reflex saving throws. Included in to-hit roll calculations for ranged weapons (both thrown and projectile). Used by a large number of skills.

Constitution (CON)

Used In
Adds to a character's hit points each time they gain a level. (This is really, really nice.) Adds to Fortitude saves. Used for a very small number of skills. Did we mention it adds to your hit points and fortitude saves?

Intelligence (INT)

Used In
Used by several classes for arcane spells and other class features. Used in a lot of skills. Determines how many languages you start with and can learn from your race's starting language list.

Starting Languages

All player characters can speak, read, and write the Common language at native familiarity, regardless of the race chosen, or their intelligence score. Some races provide an additional language to starting characters, regardless of their intelligence score. Characters with secondary languages from their race can speak, read and write these languages at native familiarity as well.

In addition to the starting language(s), characters with a positive Intelligence modifier gain one bonus language per +1 of their modifier. That is, a character with a 14 intelligence (which grants a +2 INT modifier) would learn 2 bonus languages. These bonus languages are selected from the list of bonus languages available to their chosen character race. Bonus languages are always learned at the fluent level of familiarity.

If a character improves their Intelligence through a permanent source (such as a magic item, a manual, or through level advancement), sufficient to increase their INT modifier, they gain an additional bonus language, chosen from the same list of their chosen race. If a character's INT modifier increases to the point where they could gain more bonus languages than those offered by their race, they no longer gain bonus languages for increasing their Intelligence (though they still gain additional skill ranks each level; see below).

Characters may also learn additional languages by placing ranks in the Linguistics skill.

Wisdom (WIS)

Used In
Used by several classes for divine spells and other class features. Used in a few skills, but they are quite important. Adds to Will saving throws, and that's rather nice.

Charisma (CHA)

Used In
Used by several classes for arcane spells and other class features. Used in a lot of good skills. Makes you real good lookin', and who doesn't like that?


Other Ability Scores

Some campaigns will have campaign-specific ability scores, which can have game effects specific to the campaign. If the optional Auramancy rules are used, for example, characters may begin with a seventh ability score called Blood (BLD) which dictates the strength of their Bloodline.