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Mostly it's about reading books in dimly-lit towers, but sometimes...

Links to all spells, sorted by class:

What is a Spell?

In Epic Path mechanics, a 'Spell' is a very common class feature, in which the player exchanges an action and often a resource of some sort (in or out of a combat) to create some sort of a game effect. "Spells' in all their flavors can have a vast array of effects. Some classes have Spells and Spellcasting as a class feature, something that those classes get to do which is unique and interesting and often very powerful. Some classes get different class features, such as the Ranger Poultices and the Alchemist Extracts, which are named differently than spells but use the same game mechanics as spells. Magic Rods and Magic Staves give access to effects that are very similar to Spells to anyone who is able to purchase and use them. In various incarnations, the 'Spell' mechanic is used to a large or small degree by no less than eight character classes, and if you buy the right magic items, anyone can use spells to at least some degree. For these rules, whenever we say 'spell' we mean the game mechanic, and this applies to spells, extracts, poultices, rods, staves, and any other game system which uses similar mechanics. The GM adjudicates all unusual circumstances, as always.

But in the larger 'Fantasy Fiction' genre of which Epic Path is a modest part, a 'Spell' is the classic Magical Thing that makes fantasy fantastic. As a result of this iconic status, the concept of 'Spells' permeates the game from beginning to end. Spells are the default 'go-to' for how amazing magical things happen, and this has been true since at least the days of the Immortal Bard, when those witches were incanting, 'Bubble, bubble; toil and trouble' to the delight of rapt audiences centuries ago.

As a result, spells have gotten to be pretty darn important in fantasy circles by the time Epic Path came along.

But at the same time, spells are still 'just a class feature'. They're not the end-all, be-all of 'magic' in this game, After all, everybody likes to be awesome!

In Epic Path, we have worked very hard to make the spell casting system act and feel just like all the best and most exciting moments of decades of gaming, but at the same time, we have plenty of new systems in place that make 'Spells' fair and balanced for EVERY character, without reducing their crazy fun one little bit.

Casting Spells

As a class feature, characters get a generous supply of spells (or poultices, or extracts, or charges in a Rod or Staff) they can use each adventuring day. Using a spell is called 'casting' it. Casting a spell is a one-time magical effect. Spells come in two broad categories, based upon the root source of the power embodied in the spell:

  • Arcane Spells are powered by the casters learning, experience, and grit. (cast by bards, sorcerers, and wizards) and
  • Divine Spells are powered by the casters faith and devotion to a higher power. (cast by clerics, druids, and paladins)

In addition, alchemists can create extracts and rangers can create poultices. While these are not spells, their effects are defined the same way as spells. Both poultices and extracts are arcane in nature.

Some spellcasters select their spells from a limited list of spells known, while others have access to a wide variety of options.

Most spellcasters prepare spells in advance — whether from a spellbook or through prayers - while some cast spells spontaneously without preparation. Despite these different ways characters use to learn or prepare their spells, when it comes to casting them, the spells are very much alike.

Whether a spell is arcane or divine, and whether a character prepares spells in advance or chooses them on the spot, casting a spell works the same way.

Choosing a Spell

  • First you must choose which spell to cast. If you are a cleric, druid, experienced paladin, experienced ranger, alchemist, or wizard, you select from among spells (or extracts and poultices) prepared earlier in the day and not yet cast (see Preparing Wizard Spells and Preparing Divine Spells).
If you are a bard or sorcerer, you can select any spell you know, provided you are capable of casting spells of that level or higher.

The Action of Casting a Spell

  • You must have the spell available to you (i.e., you haven't forgotten to memorize it or already used it up without recovering it somehow).
  • Casting a spell almost always requires a Standard action. Some combat or defensive spells (Feather Fall (Sorcerer/Wizard Spell), for example) are immediate actions. Spells with one or more Metamagic Feats (see Quicken Spell (Feat)) sometimes have their casting times decreased to swift actions as a result of applying the metamagic feat to them, but they're generally Worth It.
  • If a spell is cast-able as a Standard Action, it can also be cast as the first attack in a Full Attack Action, just as any other standard action attack action (such as a Bull Rush or a Cleave). It cannot be cast with any attack other than the first one (the one with your highest BAB) in a full attack action.
  • To cast a spell, you must be able to speak (if the spell has a verbal component), gesture (if it has a somatic component), and manipulate the material components or focus (if any). Additionally, you must concentrate to cast a spell. Drawing a material component for a spell (if any) is always treated as part of the action of casting the spell.
If a spell has multiple versions, you choose which version to use when you cast it. You don't have to prepare (or learn, in the case of a bard or sorcerer) a specific version of the spell.
  • Once you've cast a prepared spell, you can't cast it again until you prepare it again. (If you've prepared multiple copies of a single spell, you can cast each copy once.) If you're a bard or sorcerer, casting a spell counts against your daily limit for spells of that spell level, but you can cast the same spell again if you haven't reached your limit.


Concentration checks are performed by making a bailiwick skill check. See Spellcraft#Concentrate, Divinity#Concentrate, Reason#Concentrate, or Naturalism#Concentrate for details.

Caster Checks

Mechanically, a Caster Check is the same as making a concentration check, namely, a bailiwick skill check. We are keeping both terms to be sure that all references are supported, but the two terms effectively are the same thing.

Attacks of Opportunity

Generally, if you cast a spell, you provoke attacks of opportunity from threatening enemies, unless you make a concentration check with the appropriate Bailiwick skill to cast defensively (see below). If you take damage from an attack of opportunity due to casting a spell without casting defensively, you must make a caster check to cast the spell, and you suffer a -5 penalty on the check. If you fail the caster check, you lose the spell as though it were cast to no effect, and waste the action used to cast it.

Spells that require only immediate, swift, or free actions to cast don't provoke attacks of opportunity.

Casting on the Defensive

Casting a spell while on the defensive does not provoke an attack of opportunity. It does, however, require a concentration check, using your bailiwick skill, to concentrate (DC 10 + (spell level x 4)) to successfully cast the spell. Failure means you are unable to cast the spell, and the memorized spell, or the spell slot, is used up. You also waste the action used to make the attempt.

  • Example 1: A courageous Sorcerer advances into battle to cast a touch spell. They spend a Move action to walk into melee range, and provoke attacks of opportunity from two monsters. One hits, and does damage to the Sorcerer. This damage does not affect their spell casting in any way this round.
  • Example 2: After their move, the Sorcerer from above spends their standard action and begins to cast their touch attack spell. This would provoke an attack of opportunity from two monsters (since this is a separate provoking action, one of the monsters, who has Combat Reflexes, is able to make two attacks of opportunity). To avoid these attacks of opportunity, the sorcerer attempts to cast defensively by making a Bailiwick skill check against the level of their spell as described above. For the purposes of this example, they roll poorly and fail this check. In this case, they lose their spell and their action, but do not risk any attacks of opportunity.
  • Example 3: Suppose instead of attempting to cast defensively, the brave sorcerer from above decides to cast their spell normally, and two monsters attack them with attacks of opportunity. One monster hits them and inflicts damage. Because they took damage due to the action of casting a spell, they now must make a Caster Check against their attacker's Maneuver Defense, at a whopping -5 penalty, as described above. If they fail this caster check (and it's not going to be easy), they lose their spell and nothing happens (Ouch). If they make the check, the spell goes off as normal.
  • Example 4: Suppose then, the sorcerer from above, (who is no shrinking violet), uses Quicken Spell to cast a SECOND touch attack spell. (What a trooper!) This time, due to the metamagic feat, they do not provoke attacks of opportunity and always get the spell off. The bad guys are promptly incinerated.

Touch Spells in Combat

Many spells have a range of touch. To use these spells, you cast the spell and then touch the subject. As part of the same action used to cast the spell, you may also touch (or attempt to touch) one creature. This is a free action, and you may take your move before casting the spell, after touching the target, or between casting the spell and touching the target. You can automatically touch one friend or use the spell on yourself, but to touch an opponent, you must succeed on an attack roll.

  • Touch Attacks: Touching an opponent with a touch spell is considered to be an armed attack and therefore does not provoke attacks of opportunity. The act of casting a spell, however, does provoke an attack of opportunity. Touch attacks come in two types: melee touch attacks and ranged touch attacks. Touch attacks are resolved against the target's regular Armor Class (AC), but they always hit on a roll of 17 or better on the die. You can score critical hits with either type of attack as long as the spell deals damage, but only a natural 20 on the die can threaten a critical (unless you have some class feature, feat, or ability that improves this). If confirmed, the hit point damage (if any) inflicted by the spell is doubled. Non-damaging effects of a spell that critically hits are unaffected by a crit, unless the spell specifically states otherwise.
  • Holding the Charge: If you don't discharge the spell in the round when you cast the spell, refer to the spell description for how the magic behaves. Some spells allow you to maintain an offensive charge over time. If you cast another spell that lays a charge, the touch spell dissipates.
  • Getting Touchy: You can touch one friend as a standard action or up to six friends within your reach as a full-round action. Alternatively, as a standard action you may make a normal unarmed attack (or an attack with a natural weapon) while holding a charge. In this case, you aren't considered armed and you provoke attacks of opportunity as normal for the attack. If your unarmed attack or natural weapon attack normally doesn't provoke attacks of opportunity, neither does this attack. If the attack hits, you deal normal damage for your unarmed attack or natural weapon and the spell discharges. If the attack misses, the spell continues to act as it is described.
  • Ranged Touch Spells in Combat: Some spells allow you to make a ranged touch attack as part of the casting of the spell. These attacks are made as part of same action as casting the spell and do not require a separate action. Ranged touch attacks provoke an attack of opportunity, even if the spell that causes the attacks was cast defensively or as a swift action with a feat. Unless otherwise noted in the spell description, ranged touch attacks cannot be held until a later turn. As a note, casting the spell and making a ranged touch attack with that spell can never provoke two attacks of opportunity, since no creature can make more than one attack of opportunity as a result of a single action, even if the action appears to provoke AOO's multiple times.

Using Metamagic Feats

As a spell-caster's knowledge of magic grows, he can learn to cast spells in ways slightly different from the norm by learning Metamagic Feats. Preparing and casting a spell in such a way is harder than normal but, thanks to metamagic feats, is at least possible. Spells modified by a metamagic feat use a spell slot higher than normal. This does not change the level of the spell, so the DC for saving throws against it does not go up if the DC is based upon the spell level. Metamagic feats do not affect spell-like abilities.

Wizards and Divine Spellcasters:
Wizards and divine spellcasters must prepare their spells in advance. During preparation, the character chooses which spells to prepare with metamagic feats (and thus which ones take up higher-level spell slots than normal).
Sorcerers and Bards:
Sorcerers and bards choose spells as they cast them. They can choose when they cast their spells whether to apply their metamagic feats to improve them. As with other spellcasters, the improved spell uses up a higher-level spell slot. Because the sorcerer or bard has not prepared the spell in a metamagic form in advance, he must apply the metamagic feat on the spot.
Metamagic Feats and Casting Time:
Using a metamagic feat on a spell in order to 'cast it better' does not alter the casting time of the spell, unless the metamagic feat specifically calls out that it changes the casting time. The Quicken Spell feat is popular because it allows a normal spell to be cast as a swift action, for a higher spell slot. If you stack several metamagic feats on a single casting, the time remains a standard action in most cases. You paid for all that awesome by taking several feats, you're really good at this stuff.
Effects of Metamagic Feats on a Spell:
A metamagic spell's variables are determined using its original spell level, even though it is prepared and cast using a higher-level spell slot (but note Heighten Spell (Feat) ). So, for example, saving throw DC's are not changed unless the metamagic feat specifically states otherwise. The modifications made by these feats only apply to spells cast directly by the feat user. A spellcaster can't use a metamagic feat to alter a spell being cast from a wand, scroll, or other device. Metamagic feats that eliminate components of a spell don't eliminate the attack of opportunity provoked by casting a spell while threatened. Metamagic feats cannot be used with all spells. See the specific metamagic feat descriptions for the spells that a particular feat can or can't modify.
Multiple Metamagic Feats on a Spell:
A spellcaster can apply multiple metamagic feats to a single spell. Changes to its level are cumulative. You can't apply the same metamagic feat more than once to a single spell, no matter how cool a double-maximized Fireball might seem to be.
Metamagic Uses Per Round:
A spellcaster may not use the same metamagic feat more than once per round. If the spellcaster is able to cast multiple spells per round, these additional spells must use different metamagic feats (if any) than the first spell used. A spellcaster cannot cast, for example, two quickened spells, but could cast a quickened and a maximized. This rule also applies to metamagic wands, even if multiple wands of the same type are owned.
Metamagic Wands:
Metamagic wands allow a caster to apply a specific metamagic feat that they know to a spell as they cast it, without increasing the spell's spell level (and/or spell slot) when it is cast. You must already have the feat that the wand augments for the wand to provide any benefit. Using a metamagic wand does not increase the casting time of the spell (though, depending on the feat, it can reduce it).

Cast a Quickened Spell

  • Swift Action

You can cast a quickened spell (see the Quicken Spell (Feat) metamagic feat), or any spell whose casting time is designated as a free or swift action, as a swift action. Only one such spell can be cast in any round, and such spells don't count toward your normal limit of one spell per round. Casting a spell as a swift action doesn't incur an attack of opportunity.

Direct or Redirect a Spell

  • Move Action

Some spells allow you to redirect the effect to new targets or areas after you cast the spell. Redirecting a spell requires a move action and does not provoke attacks of opportunity or require concentration.

Dismiss a Spell

  • Standard Action

Dismissing an active spell is a standard action that doesn't provoke attacks of opportunity.

Caster Level

A spell's power often depends on its caster level, which is equal to the spellcaster's class level in the class they are using to cast the spell. If a character only has one character class (i.e. they have not multi-classed or dual-classed their character), then their caster level, class level, and character level will all be the same. If a character is dual-classed or multi-classed, a caster level is only equal to the class level of their spellcasting class. It is possible to have more than one caster level, if you have dual- or multi-classed into more than one spellcasting class. The caster levels of different spellcasting classes do NOT stack, unless you have an ability, feat, or feature that specifically states that they do.

You can cast a spell at a lower caster level than your own if you wish, but the caster level you choose must be high enough for you to cast the spell in question, and all level-dependent features must be based on the adjusted caster level.

In the event that a class feature or other special ability provides an adjustment to your caster level, that adjustment applies not only to effects based on caster level (such as range, duration, and damage dealt), but also to your Caster Check to overcome your target's Spell Resistance and to the caster level used in dispel checks (both the dispel check and the DC of the check).

See also: Character Level and Class Level


All supernatural and spell-like abilities are powered by mana. Extraordinary abilities usually are not, being inherent to the person or creature who possesses them.

Mana is stored and used by the aura, which is the interaction field between a physical body and the background magic of the world.

Both Arcane and Divine abilities use this basic mechanism. Arcane abilities require the efforts of the wielder to store the mana in the aura. Divine abilities are placed into the aura of the wielder by a (presumably benevolent) Divine Entity. Some users of magic use different mechanics, and the mana is stored in an object. This includes the bombs and extracts of an alchemist, or the poultices of a ranger.

Spell-like, supernatural, and extraordinary abilities, regardless of how they are powered, are mostly defined as being either Vancian or Howardian in their behavior. (Vance and Howard are ancient sages and scribes whose towering intellects and dominating contributions have enshrined them forever.)

Vancian abilities are powered and defined by packets of mana twisted into and then released from the aura. Many abilities are Vancian, such as spells, poultices, extracts, bombs, potions, scrolls, and many class features (Lay on Hands, Inspiration, etc.). Vancian abilities come in quanta, or steps, or levels.

Howardian abilities are powered by flows of baseline mana which naturally replenish over time in the aura of the user. Such things as some Rage abilities, Chains, some Tactics and Talents, Formation, Quarry, are examples of Howardian magic abilities. Note that Howardian abilities do not even have to use mana at all, which is where most Extraordinary abilities arise.

There is a third class of abilities, the Yngvarian abilities, whose only defining trait is, they don't fit the Vancian or Howardian models cleanly. Yngvarian abilities are hotly debated as an ongoing area of philosophical discussion.

Mana Burning

Spells, extracts, and poultices are interchangeable with regards to mana burning. Any of them can be used in mana burning to empower any of the others. This is mostly only of use for dual-classed and multi-classed characters, but other circumstances may also arise. In these rules, all references will be to 'spells' for brevity, but always refer to all three abilities.

Spells are primarily Vancian because they have a strongly defined series of steps, 'Spell Levels". But spells have a second element, the 'Circle'. The Circle of a spell is related to but not fully defined by the spell's Level. The damage a spell does is determined by its Circle, NOT by its level, and the Circle of a spell can be raised by the caster through Mana Burning.

When a spell of a specific Level is cast, it empties out a spell slot of mana and produces an effect. The base damage of that effect is defined by the base Circle of the spell. But, during the casting, the caster may, if they choose, 'throw more fuel on the fire'. They do so by emptying other spell slots. Each spell slot they burn adds raw, unformed mana to the spell being cast, and each spell slot so burned (of any level) adds 1 to the Circle of the spell being cast. A low level slot that is burned provides the same benefit as a high level slot that is burned.

The maximum Circle of a spell is determined ONLY by the character level of the caster (not their caster level). This allows a dual-class caster or a multi-class caster to 'burn' through their mana recklessly and produce a few effects just as strong as a dedicated caster of their own level.

Even more importantly, there are only nine spell levels, but there are eighteen Circles! At the very highest levels, those casters who have not indulged in True Dweomers can Mana Burn their conventional spells to the very heights of those lofty High Circles, producing damaging effects that must be seen to be believed, even from fairly mundane spells, at the cost of recklessly 'burning' a dozen or more spell slots in a single casting.

Mana Burning is completely optional, but can be very, very tempting. At mid-levels it can provide a useful 'bump' in damage for fairly modest expenditures of spell slots. At high levels, a single spell can Burn a dozen or more spell slots. Combined with Quicken Spell, a reckless caster could tear through fifty or more of their spell slots in a single round!

Granted, such extreme feats of mana burning are likely to end most fights quickly, but there are very few casters of any sort that can keep up that sort of a ruinous pace for very long.

Circle Damage for Spells

Spell Circle Burn Cost Min Character Level (CL) Base Dice Max Dice
0 N/A N/A 1d4/2CL 4d4
1 N/A 1st 1d6/CL 4d6
2 +1 3rd 1d6/CL 6d6
3 +1 5th 1d6/CL 10d6
4 +1 7th 1d6+1/CL 12d6+12
5 +1 9th 1d6+1/CL 15d6+15
6 +1 11th 1d6+2/CL 16d6+32
7 +1 13th 1d6+2/CL 20d6+40
8 +1 15th 1d6+3/CL 21d6+63
9 +1 17th 1d6+3/CL 25d6+75
10 +1 19th 1d6+4/CL 25d6+100
11 +1 21st 1d6+5/CL 25d6+125
12 +1 23rd 1d6+6/CL 27d6+162
13 +1 25th 1d6+7/CL 27d6+189
14 +1 27th 1d6+8/CL 29d6+232
15 +1 29th 1d6+9/CL 29d6+261
16 +1 31st 1d6+10/CL 30d6+300
17 +1 33rd 1d6+11/CL 30d6+330
18 +1 35th 1d6+12/CL 30d6+360

Notes and details on Mana-burning

  • Memorizing a spell in a higher level slot than the minimum required does not raise the spell's circle. Memorizing a spell in a higher level slot because it has one or more Metamagic Feats applied to it does not increase the spell's Circle. The only way to increase a spell's Circle is by Mana Burning one or more additional spell slots as the spell is being cast, and/or having some ability or item which provides a Circle boost.
  • Every spell (or extract, or poultice) has a Level, but not every spell has a Circle. If a spell does not have a Circle, it generally does no damage, or has a custom damage profile. Always see the spell description for details.
  • If a spell has more than one Circle, and more than one of them come into play during a single casting of the spell, then mana burning during the casting raises all of them for the same cost in spell slots.
  • Some spells may have a custom damage profile for their base circle. Such spells may be mana-burned as normal, and the first 'step up' moves them to the standard damage model, unless the spell specifically states what Burning does in its description.
  • Some spells may do damage, but do NOT have a Circle. Such spells may not be Mana Burned. The only way to increase their damage is increasing caster level, application of metamagic feats, or methods described in the spell itself.
  • If a spell has a minimum Circle listed which is higher than the Circle you can legally cast due to the rule above, then the spell deals damage as described, but it cannot be mana burned until you attain a higher character level.
  • Metamagic Feats stack normally when used at the same time as Mana Burning, and only escalate the 'base' spell slot. All benefits of the metamagic feat apply to the effects of the spell's Circle after all Burning has been done. Yes, you can memorize a Perfected Fireball (using a ninth level spell slot, unless you've researched it down), and then burn fourteen spell slots to increase the Perfected Fireball's Circle 3 damage to Circle 17 damage (assuming you are high enough level to reach Circle 17 damage), and do maximized Circle 17 damage, with all the other benefits of Perfected to-boot. Expensive, yes, but that fireball would cast shadows on the Sun....
  • Any spell slot may be burned, but it must contain an un-cast spell. Once burned, the spell is gone until recovered normally, and that slot may not be used for burning until it again contains a spell. This gives a solid use for all spell slots of any level, regardless of caster level. This rule means that cantrips, Perfect Cantrips, and True Dweomers cannot be used for mana-burning fuel. Good try.
  • True Dweomers follow all of these rules, with specific changes as detailed under those rules. In general, True Dweomers are more flexible, more powerful, and more expensive to Mana Burn than Spells.

  • Example 1: A 25th level wizard casts the old classic, fireball. Fireball does 3rd circle spell damage, 1d6 per level, max 10d6. The wizard moves it to 9th circle spell damage (1d6+3 per level, max 25d6+75). This costs seven spell slots, the base 3rd level slot for the spell, and six spell slots of any level to move the damage up six levels.
  • Example 2: A 13th level wizard/ 12th level fighter casts the old classic, fireball. Fireball does 3rd circle spell damage, max 10d6. The wiz/fighter moves it to 9th circle spell damage (since the character level of 25 would enable a straight wizard to cast L9 spells), which is 1d6+3 per caster level max 25d6+75. This costs the wizard/fighter seven spell slots (which is MUCH more expensive for a 13th wiz), but gets a full-tilt 25d6+75 fireball.

Spell Failure

If you ever try to cast a spell in conditions where the characteristics of the spell cannot be made to conform, the casting fails and the spell is wasted. Environmental Effects of high wind and heavy rain can force Caster Checks for certain spells.

Spells also fail if your concentration is broken and might fail if you're wearing Armor and Shields while casting a spell with somatic components.

The Spell's Result

Once you know which creatures (or objects or areas) are affected, and whether those creatures have made successful saving throws (if any were allowed), you can apply whatever results a spell entails. Read each spell carefully for its exact effects, there is a VERY wide range of effects possible. As always, the GM adjudicates any odd or unusual cases.

Special Spell Effects

Many special spell effects are handled according to the school of the spells in question. Certain other special spell features are found across spell schools.

Some spell descriptions refer to attacking. All offensive combat actions, even those that don't damage opponents, are considered attacks. Attempts to channel energy count as attacks if it would harm any creatures in the area. All spells that opponents resist with saving throws, that deal damage, or that otherwise harm or hamper subjects are attacks. Spells that summon monsters or other allies are not attacks because the spells themselves don't harm anyone. This distinction is important for keeping or losing that fancy Invisibility (Sorcerer/Wizard Spell) effect.
Bringing Back the Dead
Several spells have the power to restore slain characters to life. When a living creature dies, its soul departs its body and moves to some mysterious afterlife that is unknowable to those still alive. Spells which restore a character back to life pull the soul back into the body of the slain creature.
Essence Destruction
Any creature brought back to life usually gains one or more points of Essence Destruction, which suppresses the use of one or more abilities, feats, or spell levels of the victim until healed. Essence Destruction will never heal on its own, but can be cured with Restoration and Greater Restoration spells, or effects which mimic these spells.
Preventing Revivification
Enemies can take steps to make it more difficult for a character to be returned from the dead. For example, simply keeping the body prevents others from using Raise Dead (Cleric Spell) or Resurrection (Cleric Spell) to restore the slain character to life. Suffering from 'trap the soul' prevents any sort of revivification unless the soul is first released. Simply performing a Coup-de-grace on a victim can be a potent method of ensuring death, as any return must overcome the initial inimical intent of the deathblow.
Revivification against One's Will
A soul can't be returned to life if it doesn't wish to be. A soul knows the name, alignment, and patron deity (if any) of the character attempting to revive it and may refuse to return on that basis.

Combining Magic Effects

Spells or magical effects usually work as described, no matter how many other spells or magical effects happen to be operating in the same area or on the same recipient. Except in special cases, a spell does not affect the way another spell operates. Whenever a spell has a specific effect on other spells, the spell description explains that effect. Several other general rules apply when spells or magical effects operate in the same place:


Beneath the spell name is a line giving the school of magic to which the spell belongs.

Almost every spell belongs to one of eight schools of magic. A school of magic is a group of related spells that work in similar ways, or have a common theme.


Abjurations are protective spells. They create physical or magical barriers, negate magical or physical abilities, harm trespassers, and attacks made with abjuring spells typically have strong secondary defensive effects.
If an abjuration creates a barrier that keeps certain types of creatures at bay, that barrier cannot be used to push away those creatures unless the spell specifically applies forced movement. If you attempt to force a barrier against such a creature, you end the spell.


Conjurations transport creatures from another plane of existence to your plane, create objects or effects on the spot; heal; bring manifestations of objects, creatures, or forms of energy to you; or transport creatures or objects over great distances. Creatures you conjure usually- but not always- obey your commands.
A creature or object brought into being or transported to your location by a conjuration spell cannot appear inside another creature or object, nor can it appear floating in an empty space. It must arrive in an open location (non-blocked, non-occupied) on a surface capable of supporting it. Otherwise, the spell fails and is lost.
The creature or object must appear within the spell's range, but it does not have to remain within the range


Enchantment spells work with the purest expressions of mana, affecting the world in ways that are subtle, or esoteric, or sometimes both. Many enchantments affect the minds of others, influencing or controlling their behavior. Other enchantments infuse power into the fabric of the world, making the mundane behave in strange and powerful ways. Enchantments almost always work through other objects, whether those objects are inanimate or creatures. To an enchanter, a creature is just a different sort of thing, to be infused with their power and then used to their ends.


Evocation spells manipulate magical energy or tap an unseen source of power to produce a desired end. In effect, an evocation draws upon magic to create something out of nothing. In this way, evocations are quite different from enchantments, and can be seen as both more potent, and weaker. Many of these spells can produce spectacular effects, and evocation spells can deal large amounts of damage.


Illusion spells change the rules of cause and effect with magical power. Illusions can change the load on a wagon, for example, by shunting the effect of weight from the wagon to the ground. Most famously, illusions can deceive the senses or minds of others. They cause people to see things that are not there, not see things that are there, hear phantom noises, or remember things that never happened.
Clarifications: Saving Throws and Illusions (Disbelief)
Creatures encountering an illusion usually do not receive saving throws to recognize it as illusory until they study it carefully or interact with it in some fashion. This is exactly similar to making a perception check versus an invisible creature. IE, unless the creature involved is actively spending actions to carefully and deliberately examine the illusory effect, it is undetectable as an illusion. If a player wishes to make such an active perception check, this must be announced. Players who want to always be making perception checks certainly can, but this QUICKLY becomes a tiresome process for everybody involved. Referees are encouraged to allow or disallow such behavior as they wish, with an emphasis on 'disallow'. Illusions fool you. That's what they do.
A successful saving throw against an illusion reveals it to be false, but a figment or phantasm remains as a translucent outline. Shadows remain as real as ever, with subtle 'wrongnesses' that make them obviously unreal, but potent anyway.
A failed saving throw indicates that a character fails to notice something is amiss. A character faced with absolute proof that an illusion isn't real (such as watching an ally walk through an illusionary wall) needs no saving throw, they disbelieve automatically. If any viewer successfully disbelieves an illusion and communicates this fact to others verbally, without making convincing proof, then each such viewer gains a saving throw with a +4 circumstance bonus.


Necromancy spells manipulate the power of death, unlife, and the life force. Spells involving undead creatures make up a large part of this school. Necromancy also is how the arcane magics manipulate the soul and sometimes aura, able to place a semblance of the spark of life upon dead tissue. There are cases where even completely inanimate tissues that were never alive may be stirred to a terrible semblance of life, but such things are often abominable in their conception and execution.


Transmutation spells change the properties of some creature, thing, or condition. Unlike other schools, transmutation is a robust, physical style of magic, with gross physical changes rather than subtle magical effects.
Of course, transmutation is still magical, so there are always exceptions. Some transmutations can have remarkably delicate and precise effects. It isn't all about turning into an ogre and tearing doors out of walls.
Transmutations can change the body of those affected into different creatures, change solid rock to thin mud, create bursts of elements such as air, water, and crystal, and numerous other effects too varied to describe.


Some spells are Universal, belonging to no school, or conversely, belonging to all schools. All arcane casters have access to all Universal spells. Many Universal spells are 'the base of magic', those core abilities that make an arcane spellcaster what they are. They include the basic ability to read magic, the ability to summon monsters to your side as allies, the ability to form magically improved materials, many spells that grant senses and the ability to scry at a distance, and at the upper levels, the most basic and powerful of spells, Wish, that allows a powerful enough practitioner of magic to cast any spell or do many other effects besides...for a price.
Some universal spells grant eerie supernatural senses, and usually have cone-shaped areas. These move with you and extend in the direction you choose. The cone defines the area that you can sweep each round. If you study the same area for multiple rounds, you can often gain additional information, as noted in the descriptive text for the spell.
A scrying spell creates an invisible magical sensor that sends you information. Unless noted otherwise, the sensor has the same powers of sensory acuity that you possess. This level of acuity includes any spells or effects that target you, but not spells or effects that emanate from you. The sensor, however, is treated as a separate, independent sensory organ of yours, and thus functions normally even if you have been blinded or deafened, or otherwise suffered sensory impairment.
A creature can notice the sensor by making a Perception check with a DC 10 + 4x the spell level. The sensor can be dispelled as if it were an active spell.
Lead sheeting, some naturally occurring minerals and plants growths, or magical protection can block a scrying spell, and you sense that the spell is blocked.


A spell's components explain what you must do or possess to cast the spell. The components entry in a spell description includes abbreviations that tell you what type of components it requires. Specifics for material and focus components are given at the end of the descriptive text. Usually you don't need to worry about components, but when you can't use a component for some reason or when a material or focus component is expensive, then the components are important.

  • Verbal (V): A verbal component is a spoken incantation. To provide a verbal component, you must be able to speak in a strong voice. A silence spell or a gag spoils the incantation (and thus the spell). a spellcaster who has been deafened has a 20% chance of spoiling any spell with a verbal component that he tries to cast.
  • Somatic (S): A somatic component is a measured and precise movement of the hand. You must have at least one hand free to enact the gestures of a spell's somatic component, or you must be wielding a weapon with the Implement (Quality), a magic rod, a magic staff, or a magic wand.
  • Material (M): A material component consists of one or more physical substances or objects that are annihilated by the spell energies in the casting process. Unless a cost is given for a material component, the cost is negligible. Don't bother to keep track of material components with negligible cost. Assume you have all you need as long as you have your spell component pouch.
  • Focus (F): A focus component is a prop of some sort. Unlike a material component, a focus is not consumed when the spell is cast and can be reused. As with material components, the cost for a focus is negligible unless a price is given. Assume that focus components of negligible cost are in your spell component pouch.

Casting Time

Most spells have a casting time of 1 standard action. Others take 1 round or more (usually described as rituals), while a few require only an immediate action. Metamagic Feats can be used to cast many spells as a swift action.

A spell that takes 1 round to cast is a full-round action, and comes into effect at the end of your current turn.

When you begin a spell that takes more than one round to cast, a ritual, you must continue the concentration from the current round to the end of your turn in whatever round the casting time is completed (at least). If you lose concentration before the casting is complete, you lose the spell. Note that taking damage will force a concentration roll (a Bailiwick skill check) with a painful -5 penalty to the roll, so try and avoid those. In general, Ritual spells must be completed outside of combat, as many of them have casting times of many minutes, or even hours, and combats are usually much, much shorter.

During any round in which you used a full-round action to cast, or continue casting, a spell, you may not make attacks of opportunity, or use immediate actions, until the start of your next turn.

A spell with a casting time of 1 swift action doesn't count against your normal limit of one spell per round. However, you may cast such a spell only once per round, unless you have metamagic Feats that allow this nigh-impossible action. Casting a spell with a casting time of 1 swift action doesn't provoke attacks of opportunity.

Range Modifiers for Spells

In general, spells don't inflict range modifiers on their casters. Even Rays, which follow some weapon rules, don't take conventional range modifiers. If you are within the range of the spell, you are easy to hit. This is in marked contrast to ranged weapons, which take quite heavy range modifiers. To balance this out a bit, some ranged weapons (projectile weapons and siege weapons, mainly) have longer ranges than spells. It is possible to get outside the range of a spell and plink away at the caster, except for those pesky Unlimited and Defined Range spells, which keep things interesting for everybody.

Of course, like all things with spells, there are exceptions to every rule, so read the spell description. The spell description is the final written rule on all aspects of spells. Of course, all DM rulings on spells are final, as they are on everything else.

Target or Targets

Some spells have a target or targets. You cast these spells on creatures or objects, as defined by the spell itself. You must be able to see or touch the target, and you must specifically choose that target. You do not have to select your target until you finish casting the spell.
If the target of a spell is yourself (the Target line of the spell description includes "You"), you do not receive a saving throw, and spell resistance does not apply.
Some spells restrict you to willing targets only. Declaring yourself as a willing target is something that can be done at any time (even if you're flat-footed or it isn't your turn). Unconscious creatures are automatically considered willing, but a character who is conscious but immobile or helpless (such as one who is bound, cowering, grappling, paralyzed, pinned, or stunned) is not automatically willing.
Some spells allow you to redirect the effect to new targets or areas after you cast the spell. Redirecting a spell is a move action that does not provoke attacks of opportunity.
Some spells target several creatures that you may choose, based upon the guidelines above.
Some spells have areas of effect(AOE's). Most genuine area of effect spells are indiscriminate attacks, and they WILL damage your allies if you are not careful. That said, AOE spells can be ridiculously powerful, so the temptation to use them can be strong. If you must indulge, perhaps investing in the Selective (Feat) would be wise.

Range or Area of Effect of a Spell

Spells have many different ranges and ways of affecting targets. Each spell you wish to use should be carefully read so you understand how it works. Additionally, there are some useful terms to know about spells, especially area of effect spells, so examine the below guidelines carefully.


  • Self: This spell only affects you, and can't even be placed in a magic item.
  • Touch: This spell affects one or more things that you can reach out and touch with your body. This usually means they can touch you back (such as by attacking you) unless you've taken steps to avoid such things.
  • Cones or Bursts: This spell affects everything in an area which must be adjacent to your space by at least one edge or corner. Every creature and/or object in the area, partially or fully, may be affected to some extent by the spell.
  • Close Range: This spell affects things within a distance from your space of 25 feet plus 5 feet per two full caster levels you possess when casting. At fifth level, a close range spell reaches out 35 feet. Read the spell itself for what it does when it gets to where it's going.
  • Medium Range: This spell affects things within a distance from your space of 100 feet plus 10 feet per full caster level you possess when casting. At fifth level, a medium range spell reaches out 150 feet. Read the spell itself for what it does when it gets to where it's going.
  • Long Range: This spell affects things within a distance from your space of 200 feet plus 20 feet per full caster level you possess when casting. At fifth level, a long range spell reaches out 300 feet. Read the spell itself for what it does when it gets to where it's going.
  • Unlimited: This spell can potentially reach anywhere at all, as long as its on the same plane of existence. This is a very powerful and rare effect! Usually used for movement, not damage, because, wow.
  • Defined Range: This spell has its range defined in the spell itself. This might be a small distance in feet, or a very long distance in miles, or even how many planes of existence it can skip over to get where its going. Refer to the spell description for details.

Areas of Effect

In Epic Path, areas of effect, distances, and movement are simplified by using a straight '1 for 1' counting convention, even when counting diagonally. Specifically, moving orthogonally (north, south, east, west; from one edge of a square to another) costs the same as moving diagonally (northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest; from one corner of a square to another). There is no penalty for moving in diagonal lines, or for counting distances across diagonal lines. This has the effect of greatly simplifying the work of determining ranges and allows high-maneuverability classes to play much faster.

Templates are no longer used for circles or cones. The areas of effect for all common cones, blasts, and other circular effects are represented as squares. (Technically, the areas of effect are cubes, but in most cases the three-dimensional visualization isn't relevant, unless there are flying creatures, or creatures at varying elevations, included in the area of effect.) This makes it very easy to visualize where an area of effect lays on a map, and allows custom sizes or widened spells to be applied or added very easily.

Why Don't Diagonals Cost More?
While it may look unrealistic that a creature can move diagonally without it costing additional movement to do so, it greatly simplifies the accounting for movement. The same 'diagonals are treated the same' principle is applied to areas of effect, for the same reason — it's easy to visualize, without the need for templates or math. It is very easy to visualize a square area of effect that is 4x4 squares in size (a 10-foot radius effect, which is centered on the intersection of four squares). It is much harder to visualize that when diagonals are treated differently (such as the Pathfinder method of making them cost 1.5:1). While that leads to prettier circles, it makes it harder to figure out which squares are included or excluded. This is even more complicated by feats or effects which double an area of effect. You might end up wasting 10 minutes debating whether a creature is in or out of an effect, because the rules chose realism over simplicity. Epic Path chooses simplicity. While the GM can always choose which of Epic Path's rules should apply in their campaign, be aware that changing this rule affects a LOT of systems beyond just movement (anything with a range or an area of effect, reach weapons, 3D movement, etc.).

Placement Rules

A variety of areas of effect are used by spells and other effects in Epic Path. The most common of these are Cones, Blasts, Bursts, and Lines, but many other shapes are also possible. In cases where a non-standard area of effect is used, the spell or effect should describe, in detail, how the shape of that effect is placed. For Cones, Blasts, Bursts, and Lines, follow the rules below. If the placement rules in the description text of the spell or effect differ from the rules listed below, refer to that description rather than these general rules.

Many spells and effects start from the caster and blast outward. A common example of this would be a dragon's breath weapon, but a number of spells, such as Burning Hand of the Magus, also use this area of effect.
A cone effect is a square area that must have an edge or corner adjacent to the caster or creator of the effect. That is, one edge or corner of the cone must touch an edge or corner of the caster's space. If the caster is sized-large or larger, the cone needs to touch any edge or corner of at least one square of the caster's space. The cone's point of origin is considered to be this point that touches the caster's space.
Once the origin point is determined, the area of effect is placed in a square-shaped area equal to size specified.
A blast effect is an area of effect that is set off at range from the caster or creator of the effect. A common example of a blast is a Fireball spell. In most cases, the caster or creator must have line of sight and line of effect to the center (the origin point) of where the blast will be placed (unless explicitly stated otherwise in the spell or effect being cast). Once the origin point of the blast is determined, the blast radiates out from that point.
Once the origin point is determined, the area of effect is placed in a square-shaped area equal to size specified, radiating outward from the origin point.
Blasts which have an even number of squares in their radius (e.g. a 20-foot radius blast, which is a 4-square radius) always originate from the intersection of four squares (i.e. the junction of the squares). This means a 20-foot radius blast is an 8 x 8 square area. However, blasts which have an odd number of squares in their radius (e.g. a 25-foot radius, which is a 5-square radius) always originate from a square in the center of the radius. This means a 25-foot radius blast is a 9 x 9 square area.
A burst effect is an area of effect that explodes outward from the caster or creator of the effect. These effects are sometimes referred to as Point-Blank Areas of Effect (PBAoEs), or just as a radius centered on the caster. They are quite easy to understand, since the effect moves outward, in all directions, from the caster's space, out to the number of squares specified by the radius. A common example of a burst effect is a Cleric's Channel Divinity class feature.
One oddity of this area of effect arises when it is cast (or caused) by a creature that is sized-large or larger. This is slightly more difficult to visualize, until you understand that bursts are NOT calculated from the center of a creature's space, but from the edges. This means that an effect with a burst radius of 10 feet would be a 5x5 square area if the creator of the effect is sized-medium or smaller, with the creator in the center of the effect. However, if the creator were size large (possessing a 2x2 square space) the radius of the effect would appear as a 6x6 square area, since the radius is counted outwards from each edge of the creator's space.
Bursts may or may not include the caster in their effects. This will usually be spelled out in the effect's description. If it isn't, then generally, harmful effects DON'T include the caster (the effect is donut-shaped), while beneficial effects typically DO include the caster.
A line effect is unusual since its shape can be irregular. Line effects always list a distance that the line can travel, but that line doesn't need to be straight. Line effects nearly always begin from a square that is adjacent to the caster's space (unless explicitly stated otherwise in the spell or effect's description).
To determine which creatures are struck by a line attack, count out a number of squares equal to the line's distance, beginning with the origin square. The path can turn, go diagonally, and even come back toward the caster. However, the path can never pass through the same square more than once, nor can the path skip any squares — it must be contiguous. Any creature whose space is included in the path (or any portion of their space, if they are sized-large or larger) is included in the area of effect of the spell or effect.
Unlike other areas of effect, lines are not big cubes, but instead create a path of 5-foot cubes that meanders across the battlefield, like a very large snake, as directed by the caster. In some rare cases, a line might be bigger than 5-feet wide, if that is explicitly stated in the description of the spell or effect being cast. In such cases, the height of the line is the same as the width, but the length of the line never affects its width or height.
It is usually okay to have the path of a line move upward into the air, unless the effect described doesn't make sense in that context. For example, a lightning bolt might shoot straight up to hit one flying creature, arc over to a second aerial target, then plunge back down to strike a target on the ground. This is perfectly allowed, assuming it has enough length to draw the entire path between all those targets. However, if the description of the effect is a ridge of exploding earth, the line's path probably needs to follow just above the surface of the ground (or possibly up a cliffside), and only affect targets near the ground (or the cliff). The GM is the final judge of what is allowed, and it should be in keeping with the flavor of the spell or ability being used.
A spell or ability that produces a line area of effect will usually require line of sight to all squares in the path, which may prevent certain squares from being included in the path. For example, the line's path cannot go around the corner of a wall unless the caster can actually perceive the squares around that corner that they want to draw the line effect through. If a requirement for line of sight is not listed in the description, it should generally be assumed that it is required. Note that "line of sight" simply means you are able to perceive it, despite the name of the term; any sense that would let you target the space in combat (e.g. Tremorsense) will suffice, not just sight-based senses.
Some effects are rays. You aim a ray as if using a ranged weapon, though typically you make a ranged touch attack rather than a normal ranged attack. As with a ranged weapon, you can fire into the dark or at an invisible creature and hope you hit something. You don't have to see the creature you're trying to hit, as you do with a targeted spell. Intervening creatures and obstacles, however, can block your line of sight or provide cover for the creature at which you're aiming.
If a ray spell has a duration, it's the duration of the effect that the ray causes, not the length of time the ray itself persists.
If a ray spell deals damage, you can score a critical hit just as if it were a weapon. A ray spell threatens a critical hit on a natural roll of 20 and deals double damage on a successful critical hit.
Rays are Weapons
Note that rays count as weapons for the purpose of spells, feats and effects that affect weapons. For example, a bard's inspire courage ability says it affects "weapon damage rolls," which is worded that way so you don't try to add the bonus to a spell like fireball. However, rays are treated as weapons, whether they're from spells, a monster ability, a class ability, or some other source, so the inspire courage bonus applies to ray attack rolls and ray damage rolls. This also means that feats that affect Weapon damage and to-hit rolls, such as Weapon Focus (Feat) or Weapon Specialization (Feat) can be taken by players with access to ray attacks (such as Wizards or Sorcerers, or anyone who has purchased a Bonebreakers Rod or other ray-making magic item) and those feats applied to any ray attacks they generate by casting spells or using magic items.
A spell with this kind of area affects creatures directly (like a targeted spell), but it affects all creatures in an area of some kind rather than individual creatures you select. The area might be a spherical burst, a cone-shaped burst, or some other shape, although all areas are abstracted to cubes for play on a grid. A common type of creature effecting spells will effect a number of creatures who are within a certain distance of each other. The simplest way to work this out in play is to choose the closest creature that the caster wishes to effect, and count out from there to the maximum distance, although again, clever players will be able to come up with all sorts of interesting options.
Many spells affect "living creatures", which means all creatures other than constructs and undead. Creatures in the spell's area that are not of the appropriate type do not count against the creatures affected.
A spell with this kind of area affects objects within an area you select (as Creatures, but affecting objects instead).
A spell can have a unique area, as defined in its description.

In some cases, blocking terrain contained in the area of effect of a cone, blast, or burst might cause squares beyond them, but still in the area of effect, to be sheltered or unaffected by the spell or effect in question. As a general rule, if the effect being created is relying on direct force (such as a blast of wind), or is made up of solid elements (such as spears of stone), blocked squares should, at a minimum, provide a cover bonus to any Reflex saves of creatures sheltering behind them. Effects that produce a liquid or gas effect might simply flow around blocking squares, affecting all unblocked squares equally. The GM is the final arbiter of this sort of thing. Note that creatures in the area of effect do NOT count as blocking; only squares that cannot be passed through with normal movement count as blocking. This particular issue doesn't happen with Line areas of effect, since they can simply choose a path that goes around a blocked square.

Line of Effect

A line of effect is a continuous, unblocked path that indicates what a spell can affect. A line of effect is canceled by a solid barrier. It's like line of sight for ranged weapons, except that it's not blocked by fog, darkness, and other factors that limit normal sight, and may or may not go around corners, depending on the effect.

You must have a clear line of effect to any target that you cast a spell on or to any space in which you wish to create an effect. You must have a clear line of effect to the point of origin of any spell you cast.

A burst, cone, cylinder, or emanation spell affects only an area, creature, or object to which it has line of effect from its origin (a spherical burst's center point, a cone-shaped burst's starting point, a cylinder's circle, or an emanation's point of origin).

An otherwise solid barrier with a hole of at least 1 square foot through it does not block a spell's line of effect. Such an opening means that the 5-foot length of wall containing the hole is no longer considered a barrier for purposes of a spell's line of effect.

Line of Sight

A line of sight is the same as a Line of Effect but with the additional restriction that that it is blocked by fog, darkness, and other factors that limit normal sight (such as Partial Concealment), and it takes a non-visual sense to go around corners. Yes, you can trace Line of Sight around corners with senses such as hearing and smell. Combined with an attack that can trace Line of Effect around corners, this is a potent combination!

A classic example is hearing an enemy in a tavern, and casting a fireball through the window. Ouch.


A spell's duration entry tells you how long the magical energy of the spell lasts. Note that any spell you cast that has a duration greater than 'instantaneous' can be dismissed prior to its duration's expiration, unless stated otherwise. Also see Timescales for more information.

The spell energy comes and goes the instant the spell is cast, though the consequences might be long-lasting.
The spell only persists as long as you concentrate upon sustaining its effects. Sustaining this concentration requires some action from you each round, or the spell ends automatically. The type of action required is either a swift, move, or standard, and will be detailed in the spell's description.
One Round
The spell's effects last until the start of your next turn.
The spell may only be cast during combat (i.e. while there is an initiative order in effect), and its effects immediately cease at the end of the current encounter.
The spell's effects persist until the end of the current encounter, the end of the next encounter, or until the start of a full night's rest, whichever is sooner.
One Day
The spell's effects persist until the end of your next full night's rest.
One Week
The spell's effects persist for 7 days.
One Moon
The spell's effects persist until the next full moon.
One Year
The spell's effects persist for a year and a day from the time it is cast. In most cases, this can only be tied to an item that doesn't move, and is often related to settlements.
One Decade
The spell's effects persist for 10 years and a day from the time it is cast. In most cases, this can only be tied to an item that doesn't move, and is often related to settlements.
One Century
The spell's effects persist for 100 years and a day from the time it is cast. In most cases, this can only be tied to an item that doesn't move, and is often related to settlements.
One Millennium
The spell's effects persist for 1000 years and a day from the time it is cast. In most cases, this can only be tied to an item that doesn't move, and is often related to settlements.
One Epoch
The spell's effects persist until the GM says it ends. In most cases, this can only be tied to an item that doesn't move, and is often related to settlements.

A note on permanency: No spell can be made permanent. Spells always expire within a year and a day of being cast, if not sooner. Anything lasting longer than this is a magic item (and most magic items aren't even truly permanent, just permanent enough).

Structures can be enchanted with permanent(-ish) magic, typically using expensive components and lengthy rituals. A structure is a non-portable object, and moving enchanted structures can disrupt or alter the enchantments placed upon them, often with disastrous consequences. Many settlements make use of such enchantments to fortify their walls or preserve the freshness of their water supply. It is also quite common for abandoned castles and dungeons to contain enchantments which have lingered and persisted for untold eons.

Saving Throws

Usually a harmful spell allows a target to make a saving throw to avoid some or all of the effect. The saving throw entry in a spell description defines which type of saving throw the spell allows and describes how saving throws against the spell work.

The spell has no effect on a subject that makes a successful saving throw.
The spell has an effect on its subject. A successful saving throw means that some lesser effect occurs.
The spell deals damage, and a successful saving throw halves the damage taken (round down).
No saving throw is allowed.
A successful save lets the subject ignore the spell's effect.
The spell can be cast on objects, which receive saving throws only if they are magical or if they are attended (held, worn, grasped, or the like) by a creature resisting the spell, in which case the object uses the creature's saving throw bonus unless its own bonus is greater. This notation does not mean that a spell can be cast only on objects. Some spells of this sort can be cast on creatures or objects. A magic item's saving throw bonuses are each equal to 2 + 1/2 the item's caster level.
The spell is usually beneficial, not harmful, but a targeted creature can attempt a saving throw if it desires.

Saving Throw Difficulty Class

Spells use one of three different possible saving throw DC's, depending on the spell:

  • 10 + caster ability modifier + spell level
  • 10 + caster ability modifier + 1/2 caster level
  • 10 + caster ability modifier + 1/2 character level

Each spell lists its save DC in the spell entry. The caster ability modifier is Intelligence for a wizards and alchemists, Charisma for bards, paladins, and sorcerers, or Wisdom for clerics, druids, and rangers.

A spell save DC that refers to 1/2 caster level uses half the caster level of the caster class that knows the spell (rounding down; this is only relevant if you have multi-classed or dual-classed). A spell save DC that refers to 1/2 character level uses half your total character level (rounding down; this is highly useful to hybrid casters such as bards, rangers, and paladins, since their character level will frequently be better than twice the spell level of a spell they are casting).

  • A spell save DC that refers to a spell level uses the unmodified spell level of the spell (before any metamagic feats are applied, unless the metamagic feat in question specifically modifies the saving throw DC of the spell, such as Heighten Spell (Feat)). A spell's level can vary depending on your class. Always use the spell level applicable to your class.
Succeeding on a Saving Throw
A creature that successfully saves against a spell that has no obvious physical effects feels a hostile force or a tingle, but cannot deduce the exact nature of the attack. Likewise, if a creature's saving throw succeeds against a targeted spell, you sense that the spell has failed. You do not sense when creatures succeed on saves against effect and area spells.
Automatic Failures and Successes
A natural 1 (the d20 comes up 1) on a saving throw is always a failure. A natural 20 (the d20 comes up 20) is always a success.
Voluntarily Giving up a Saving Throw
A creature can voluntarily forgo a saving throw and willingly accept a spell's result. Even a character with a special resistance to magic can suppress this quality (though suppressing spell resistance often requires an action of some kind — it usually cannot be done outside of your turn).
Items Surviving after a Saving Throw
Unless the descriptive text for the spell specifies otherwise, all items carried or worn by a creature are assumed to be unaffected by magical attacks.

Spell Resistance

Spell resistance (abbreviated SR) is the extraordinary ability to avoid being affected by spells. Some spells also grant spell resistance.

To affect a creature that has spell resistance, a spellcaster must make a Caster Check with a result that is greater than or equal to the creature's spell resistance. The defender's spell resistance is like an Armor Class against magical attacks. If the caster fails the check, the spell is wasted, having no effect on the target creature. The possessor does not have to do anything special to use spell resistance. The creature need not even be aware of the threat for its spell resistance to operate.

Only spells and spell-like abilities are subject to spell resistance. Extraordinary and supernatural abilities (including enhancement bonuses on magic weapons) are not. A creature can have some abilities that are subject to spell resistance and some that are not. In addition, some spells ignore spell resistance; see When Spell Resistance Applies, below.

Monsters attempting to use a spell or spell-like ability against a player character roll 1d20 + their Hit Dice, and compare that value against the target's Spell Resistance value. If the result equals or exceeds the target's Spell Resistance, the spell works. If it does not, the spell (and the action to cast it) are wasted, having no effect on the target.

A creature can voluntarily lower its spell resistance. Doing so usually requires a Standard Action that does not provoke an Attack of Opportunity. Once a creature lowers its resistance, it remains down until the creature's next turn. At the beginning of the creature's next turn, the creature's spell resistance automatically returns unless the creature intentionally keeps it down (requiring a new standard action each round).

A creature's spell resistance never interferes with its own spells, items, or abilities.

A creature with spell resistance cannot impart this power to others by touching them or standing in their midst. Only the rarest of creatures and a few magic items have the ability to bestow spell resistance upon another.

Spell resistance does not stack. If a creature has more than one source of Spell Resistance, only the highest available value is used.

When Spell Resistance Applies

Each spell includes an entry that indicates whether spell resistance applies to the spell. In general, whether spell resistance applies depends on what the spell does.
Targeted Spells
Spell resistance applies if the spell is targeted at the creature. Some individually targeted spells can be directed at several creatures simultaneously. In such cases, a creature's spell resistance applies only to the portion of the spell actually targeted at it. If several different resistant creatures are subjected to such a spell, each checks its spell resistance separately.
If a spell uses the terms "object" or "harmless", they mean the same thing for spell resistance as they do for saving throws. A creature with spell resistance must voluntarily lower the resistance (a standard action) in order to be affected by such spells without forcing the caster to make a Caster Check.
Area Spells
Spell resistance applies if the resistant creature is within the spell's area. It protects the resistant creature without affecting the spell itself.
Effect Spells
Most effect spells summon or create something and are not subject to spell resistance. Sometimes, however, spell resistance applies to effect spells, usually to those that act upon a creature more or less directly, such as web.
Spell resistance can protect a creature from a spell that has already been cast. Check spell resistance when the creature is first affected by the spell.
Check spell resistance only once for any particular casting of a spell or use of a spell-like ability. If spell resistance fails the first time, it fails each time the creature encounters that same casting of the spell. Likewise, if the spell resistance succeeds the first time, it always succeeds. If the creature has voluntarily lowered its spell resistance and is then subjected to a spell, the creature still has a single chance to resist that spell later, when its spell resistance is back up.
Spell resistance has no effect unless the energy created or released by the spell actually goes to work on the resistant creature's mind or body. If the spell acts on anything else and the creature is affected as a consequence, no roll is required. Spell-resistant creatures can be harmed by a spell when they are not being directly affected.
Spell resistance does not apply if an effect fools the creature's senses or reveals something about the creature.
Magic actually has to be working for spell resistance to apply. Spells that have instantaneous durations but lasting results aren't subject to spell resistance unless the resistant creature is exposed to the spell the instant it is cast.

Successful Spell Resistance

Spell resistance prevents a spell or a spell-like ability from affecting or harming the resistant creature, but it never removes a magical effect from another creature or negates a spell's effect on another creature. Spell resistance prevents a spell from disrupting another spell.
Against an ongoing spell that has already been cast, a failed check against spell resistance allows the resistant creature to ignore any effect the spell might have. The magic continues to affect others normally.

Descriptive Text

This portion of a spell description details what the spell does and how it works. If one of the previous entries in the description includes "see text", this is where the explanation is found. In all cases, if the details in a given spell's description contradicts anything in the general spell rules, the spell description should be followed. If the result is ridiculously broken, due to an error or unforeseen circumstance, then the referee can and should make a ruling on it, and as always, such rulings win. GM's are encouraged to be firm, but fair. If your players figure out a way to completely break encounters, the simple and effective solution is to disallow the use of the spell. Of course, you're the GM, you can also rule it any other way you want.


Some spells that inflict a status condition offer a special feature called a 'synergy' which is triggered if and when some new condition overwrites the existing condition on the target creature before the condition wears off or is resisted by the monster. If this occurs, the synergy's effect is triggered, usually in the form of bonus damage, though the exact effects are described in the spell entry. Synergies can generally be triggered by any condition at all, even weak conditions, such as dazzled, making teamwork attacks that are designed to make use of these synergies quite effective, if players (or monsters) can pull off the timing correctly. If a synergy requires some specific severity of condition (i.e. moderate or strong), it will say so in its description.

Arcane or Divine Charge

Many spells which have a duration other than instantaneous will lay either an Arcane or Divine charge, depending on the character class of the caster. Divine casters lay divine charges, while arcane casters lay arcane charges. If the targets are something other than the caster or another creature (such as an object or area), the spell lays an arcane or divine charge on the caster. Targets which already have an arcane or divine charge present must choose which to keep if the new spell has the same charge type. Only one arcane charge and one divine charge can ever be present on a target at a time.

Dual Charges

Some of the more powerful spells lay a 'dual charge'. If the targets are something other than the caster or another creature (such as an object or area), the spell instead lays a dual charge on the caster. Targets which already have a dual charge, a divine charge, or an arcane charge, may choose only one of these effects to keep. Dual charges are treated as both an arcane and a divine charge, and a creature may only ever have a single arcane charge and divine charge present on them at a time.

Communal Spells

Communal spells function like other spells, except they allow you to divide the duration among multiple targets, treating each target as a subject of the spell. When you divide the duration, you must divide it as evenly as possible among the targets. Furthermore, unless a communal spell's description indicates otherwise, no target can receive a duration increment smaller than the smallest increment of duration given in the spell description. For example, if you are 5th level, your communal spell's duration is 10 minutes per level, and you have four targets, then each target must receive 10 minutes of duration. The extra 10 minutes of duration must be assigned to one of the four targets (your choice) or it is wasted.

Extradimensional Spaces

A number of spells and magic items utilize extradimensional spaces, such as Magic Haversack, or a Portable Hole. These spells and magic items create a tiny pocket of space that does not exist in any dimension. Such items cannot interact with another extradimensional space. If you attempt to put one extradimensional-space-using item inside another such item, they may reject each other, with results detailed in the writeup of the items in question. Clever efforts to subvert this rule tend to backfire spectacularly, often destroying the items (and sometimes their owners) in the process.

Arcane Spells

Wizards, sorcerers, and bards cast arcane spells. Compared to divine spells, arcane spells are more likely to produce dramatic results.

Preparing Wizard Spells

A wizard, sorcerer, or bard's level limits the number of spells they can prepare and cast. Their high Intelligence score might allow them to prepare a few extra spells. They can prepare the same spell more than once, but each preparation counts as one spell toward their daily limit. To prepare a spell the wizard must have an Ability score of at least 10 + the spell's level. The process of preparing a spell empowers the caster's aura with magic energy that they may use to cast the spell. No matter how well they know each of their spells, if they have not taken the time to charge their aura with energy by resting, they may not cast it.

Preparing Sorcerer and Bard Spells

Sorcerers and bards cast arcane spells, but they do not use spellbooks or prepare spells. Their class level limits the number of spells they can know (see these class descriptions). Their high Charisma score might allow them to cast a few extra spells each day, but it does not improve the number of spells they know. A member of either class must have a Charisma score of at least 10 + the spell's level to cast the spell.

Daily Readying of Spells

Each day, sorcerers and bards must focus their minds on the task of casting their spells. A sorcerer or bard needs 8 hours of rest (just like a wizard), after which they must spend 15 minutes concentrating. (A bard must sing, recite, or play an instrument of some kind while concentrating.) During this period, the sorcerer or bard readies their mind and aura to cast their daily allotment of spells. Without such a period to refresh themselves, the characters do not regain the spell slots they used up the day before.


To prepare their daily spells, an arcane caster must first sleep for 8 hours. The wizard, sorcerer, or bard does not have to slumber for every minute of the time, but they must refrain from movement, combat, spell-casting, skill use, conversation, or any other fairly demanding physical or mental task during the rest period. If their rest is interrupted, each interruption adds 1 hour to the total amount of time they have to rest in order to clear their mind and refresh their aura. They must have at least 1 hour of uninterrupted rest immediately prior to preparing spells. If the character does not need to sleep for some reason, they must still have 8 hours of restful calm before preparing any spells.

Recent Casting Limit/Rest Interruptions

If a wizard, sorcerer, or bard has cast spells recently, the drain on their aura reduces their capacity to prepare new spells. When a wizard, sorcerer, or bard prepares spells for the coming day, all the spells they have cast within the last 8 hours (such as during an overnight fight) count against their daily limit for the coming day. Normally, this is not a concern, because most casters regain all their spells after a night's rest, which means there's been eight hours of no adventuring.

If, however, your restful night was interrupted by a massive midnight battle, any spells you used during that battle (unless you wait a full eight hours after the combat to regain your spells) count against your next days allotment of spells.

Preparation Environment

To prepare any spell, any arcane caster must have enough peace, quiet, and comfort to allow for proper concentration. The caster's surroundings need not be luxurious, but they must be free from overt distractions. Exposure to inclement weather prevents the necessary concentration, as does any injury or failed saving throw the character might experience while studying. Wizards also must have access to their spellbooks to study from and sufficient light to read them by. There is one major exception: A wizard can prepare a read magic spell even without a spellbook.

Wizard Spell Preparation Time

After resting, a wizard must study their spellbook to prepare any spells that day. If a wizard wants to prepare all of their spells, the process takes 1 hour no matter how many spells that may be. Preparing some smaller portion of their daily allotment of spells takes a proportionally smaller amount of time, but always at least 15 minutes, the minimum time required to achieve the proper mental state. The GM is encouraged to abstract this time as part of a Full Night's rest, although as much detail, or as little, may be devoted to this process.

Spell Selection and Preparation

Until they prepare spells from their spellbook, the only spells an arcane caster has available to cast are the ones that they already had prepared from a previous day and has not yet used, or, any spells they can always cast such as cantrips or orisons. In general, an arcane caster must prepare each of their spells at least once per year, although they usually do it far more frequently. During the study period, the caster chooses which spells to prepare. If a wizard already has spells prepared (from the previous day) that they have not cast or used up for mana burning, they can choose to abandon some or all of them in their aura, effectively 'forgetting' that instance of the prepared spell, to make room for new spells.

When preparing spells for the day, a wizard can leave some of these spell slots open. Such open slots can be used for mana burning, or for powering the Arcane Blast (Feat), for reasons why this is sometimes done. Later during that day, they can repeat the 15 minute preparation process as often as they like, time and circumstances permitting. During these extra sessions of preparation, the wizard can fill these unused spell slots with any spell in their spellbook, as always. They 'cannot', however, abandon a previously prepared spell to replace it with another one, or fill a slot that is empty because they have cast a spell in the meantime. That sort of preparation requires a mind and aura fresh from rest. Like the first session of the day, this preparation takes at least 15 minutes, and it takes longer if the wizard prepares more than one-quarter of their spells.

Spell Slots

The various character class tables show how many spells of each level an arcane spell caster can cast per day. These openings for daily spells are called spell slots. A spellcaster always has the option to fill a higher-level spell slot with a lower-level spell. A spellcaster who lacks a high enough ability score to cast spells that would otherwise be his or her due still gets the slots but must fill them with spells of lower level, or find other uses for them.

Prepared Spell Retention

Once an arcane caster prepares a spell, it remains in their mind and aura as a 'nearly cast' spell until they use the prescribed components and gestures to complete and trigger it, or, until they abandon and 'forget' it. Certain other events, such as the effects of magic items or special attacks from monsters, can wipe a prepared spell from a character's mind. Arcane spells must be refreshed at least annually.

Death and Prepared Spell Retention

If a spellcaster dies, all prepared spells stored in his or her mind and aura are wiped away. Potent magic (such as raise dead, resurrection, or true resurrection) can recover the lost energy from the caster's aura when it recovers the character. Thus, raising a caster in battle brings them back with their unused spells intact.

Arcane Magical Writings

To record an arcane spell in written form, a character uses complex notation that describes the magical forces involved in the spell. This is not a language, and is not subject to the Linguistics Skill. All arcane casters use the same system of symbols no matter what their native language or culture. However, each character uses the system in their own way. Another person's magical writing remains incomprehensible to even the most powerful wizard until they take time to study and decipher how it was used.

To decipher an arcane magical writing (such as a single spell in written form in another persons spellbook or on a scroll), an arcane caster must make a Spellcraft check (DC 10 + 4x the spell's level). If the skill check fails, the character cannot attempt to read that particular spell again until the next day. A Read Magic (Sorcerer/Wizard Spell) automatically deciphers a magical writing without a skill check. If the person who created the magical writing is on hand to help the reader, success is also automatic.

Once a character deciphers a particular magical writing, they do not need to decipher it again. Deciphering a magical writing allows the reader to identify the spell and gives some idea of its effects (as explained in the spell description). If the magical writing was a scroll and the reader can cast arcane spells, they can attempt to use the scroll.

Wizard Spells and Borrowed Spellbooks

A wizard can use a borrowed spellbook to prepare a spell they already know and has recorded in their own spellbook, but preparation success is not assured. First, the wizard must decipher the writing in the book (see Arcane Magical Writings, above). Once a spell from another spell-casters book is deciphered, the reader must make a Caster check (DC 10 + 4x spell's level) to prepare the spell. If the check succeeds, the wizard can prepare the spell. The wizard must repeat the check to prepare the spell again, no matter how many times they have prepared it before. If the check fails, they cannot try to prepare the spell from the same source again until the next day. (However, as explained above, they do not need to repeat a check to decipher the writing.)

Adding Spells to a Wizard's Spellbook

Wizards can add new spells to their spellbooks through several methods. A wizard can only learn new spells that belong to the wizard spell lists.

Spells Gained at a New Level

Wizards perform a certain amount of spell research between adventures. Each time a character attains a new wizard level, he gains two spells of his choice to add to his spellbook. The two free spells must be of spell levels he can cast. This ability never grants access to a True Dweomer, or to a spell which has been custom-modified via the Between Adventures system.

Spells Copied from Another Persons Spellbook or a Scroll

A wizard can also add a spell to their book whenever they encounter one on a magic scroll or in another wizard's spellbook. No matter what the spell's source, the wizard must first decipher the magical writing (see Arcane Magical Writings). Next, they must spend one or more full days studying the spell. At the end of the first full day, they must make a Spellcraft check versus a CR equal to their character level, and declare what difficulty class (e.g. easy, average, challenging, hard, impossible) they achieved with the check. The outcome of this check determines how long it will take to copy the spell. See Copying Spells Into a Spellbook for details.

A wizard who has specialized in a school of spells gains a +2 bonus on the Spellcraft check if the new spell is from his specialty school. If the check succeeds, the wizard understands the spell and can copy it into his spellbook. The process leaves a spellbook that was copied from unharmed, but a spell successfully copied from a magic scroll disappears from the parchment.

If the check fails, the wizard cannot understand or copy the spell. He cannot attempt to learn or copy that spell again until one week has passed. If the spell was from a scroll, a failed Spellcraft check does not cause the spell to vanish.

In most cases, wizards charge a fee for the privilege of copying spells from their spellbooks. This fee is usually equal to half the cost to write the spell into a spellbook (see Writing a New Spell into a Spellbook). Rare and unique spells might cost significantly more.

Independent Research

A wizard can also research a spell independently, duplicating an existing spell or creating an entirely new one by incorporating one or more Metamagic Feats. The cost to research a new spell, and the time required, are left up to GM discretion, but it should fall in line with the Between Adventures guidelines.

In addition to replicating an existing spell, it is possible to create custom spells by stacking metamagic feats into spells and then lowering their spell level. In this way, many thousands of custom spells can be created.


The process of writing a spell into a spellbook takes a minimum of 24 hours, regardless of the spell's level, and thus falls under the Between Adventures guidelines. For specific details, see the Inscribing Spells usage of the Between Adventures rules.

Space in the Spellbook

A spell takes up one page of the spellbook per two spell levels, round down, minimum 1 page. Even a 0-level spell (cantrip) takes one page. Thus, spells from levels 0 to 3rd require one page, 4th and 5th require two pages, 6th and 7th requires three pages, 8th and 9th require four pages, 10th and 11th require five pages, 12th and 13th require six pages, 14th and 15th require seven pages, and 16th and 17th require eight pages each.

Inscribing a True Dweomer in a spellbook is a MUCH more involved process. Such magics require a minimum of ten pages, plus an additional page per level of the True Dweomer. Thus, a level 10th True Dweomer requires 20 pages, level 11th requires 21 pages, 12th requires 22 pages, 13th requires 23 pages, and 14th requires 24 pages. A standard spellbook can contain a mix of spells and True Dweomers, and frugal Wizards are known to start a book with a selection of cantrips, and then lard the remainder of the pages with True Dweomers, just to squeeze arcane knowledge onto every single page.

A standard spellbook has one hundred pages and weighs five pounds. At low levels, a tyro wizardling can easily fit everything they know into a single book, weighing five pounds, that they carry about like an anxious little nerd. At much higher levels, a Mythic Class Magus in their 30+ levels can have dozens of spellbooks, requiring a Ghostroom or a Demiplane to store their portable library. Such a vast reserve of world-shaking arcane knowledge can take weeks to make a copy of, and a wise Wizard always has at least a couple of copies of their arcane knowledge hidden away in various places.

Materials and Costs

There is no cost associated with scribing new spells into a spellbook, other than the cost of acquiring the new spell itself (if any).

Replacing and Copying Spellbooks

A wizard can use the procedure for learning a spell to reconstruct a lost spellbook. If they already have a particular spell prepared in a spell slot, the wizard can write it directly into a new book. The process wipes the prepared spell from their mind and aura, just as casting it would. If they do not have the spell prepared, they can prepare it from a borrowed spellbook and then write it into a new book. To fully scribe spells stored in memory and aura into a standard 100 page spell book costs 1000 gp.

Note that duplicating or replacing a spellbook is MUCH less expensive than preparing your main spellbook. Most wizards keep a spare or three hidden away in very safe places, just in case.

Selling a Spellbook

Captured spellbooks can be sold for a gp amount equal to one-half the cost of purchasing and inscribing the spells within. A spellbook entirely filled with spells of a reasonable level is worth a LOT. There is a reason why Wizards are very touchy about their spellbooks.

Sorcerers And Bards

Sorcerers and bards cast arcane spells, but they do not have spellbooks and do not prepare their spells. A sorcerer's or bard's class level limits the number of spells he can cast. His high Charisma score might allow him to cast a few extra spells. A member of either class must have a Charisma score of at least 10 + a spell's level to cast the spell.

Daily Readying of Spells

Each day, sorcerers and bards must focus their minds on the task of casting their spells. A sorcerer or bard needs 8 hours of rest (just like a wizard), after which he spends 15 minutes concentrating. (A bard must sing, recite, or play an instrument of some kind while concentrating.) During this period, the sorcerer or bard readies his mind to cast his daily allotment of spells. Without such a period to refresh himself, the character does not regain the spell slots he used up the day before.

Recent Casting Limit

As with wizards, any spells cast within the last 8 hours count against the sorcerer's or bard's daily limit.

Adding Spells to a Sorcerer's or Bard's Repertoire

A sorcerer or bard gains spells each time they attain a new level in their class and never gains spells any other way. When your sorcerer or bard gains a new level, consult Table: The Bard or Table: Sorcerer Spells Known to learn how many spells from the appropriate spell list he now knows.

It is possible, in the course of role-playing or engaging in the campaign's story, for a sorcerer or bard to gain one or more additional spells without gaining a level. For example, this can occur if they suddenly gain an unusual understanding of a particular spell, or have an abrupt epiphany about the nature of a spell's inner workings. Such situations are extremely rare, and are only possible with GM consent.

Divine Spells

Clerics, druids, and paladins can cast divine spells. Unlike arcane spells, divine spells draw power from a divine source. Clerics gain spell power from deities or from divine forces. The divine force of nature powers druid spells. The divine forces of law, good, and evil power paladin spells. Divine spells tend to focus on healing and protection and are less flashy, destructive, and disruptive than arcane spells.

Preparing Divine Spells

Divine spellcasters prepare their spells in largely the same manner as wizards do, but with a few differences. The relevant ability for divine spells is Wisdom or Charisma. To prepare a divine spell, a character must have an Ability score of 10 + the spell's level. Likewise, bonus spells are based on Wisdom or Charisma.

Time of Day

A divine spellcaster chooses and prepares spells ahead of time, just as a wizard does. However, a divine spellcaster does not require a period of rest to prepare spells. Instead, the character chooses a particular part of the day to pray and receive spells. The time is usually associated with some daily event. If some event prevents a character from praying at the proper time, he must do so as soon as possible. If the character does not stop to pray for spells at the first opportunity, he must wait until the next day to prepare spells.

Spell Selection and Preparation

A divine spellcaster selects and prepares spells ahead of time through prayer and meditation at a particular time of day. The time required to prepare spells is the same as it is for a wizard, as is the requirement for a relatively peaceful environment. A divine spellcaster does not have to prepare all his spells at once. However, the character's mind is considered fresh only during his or her first daily spell preparation, so a divine spellcaster cannot fill a slot that is empty because he or she has cast a spell or abandoned a previously prepared spell.

Divine spellcasters do not require spellbooks. However, such a character's spell selection is limited to the spells on the list for their class. Clerics, druids, paladins, and rangers have separate spell lists.

Spontaneous Casting of Cure and Inflict Spells

A good cleric (or a cleric of a good deity) can spontaneously cast a cure spell in place of a prepared spell of the same level or higher, but not in place of a bonus domain spell. An evil cleric (or a cleric of an evil deity) can spontaneously cast an inflict spell in place of a prepared spell (that is not a domain spell) of the same level or higher. Each neutral cleric of a neutral deity spontaneously casts either cure spells like a good cleric or inflict spells like an evil one, depending on which option the player chooses when creating the character. The divine energy of the spell that the cure or inflict spell substitutes for is converted into the cure or inflict spell as if that spell had been prepared all along.

Spell Slots

The character class tables show how many spells of each level a divine character can cast per day.

These openings for daily spells are called spell slots. A divine spellcaster always has the option to fill a higher-level spell slot with a lower level spell. A spellcaster who lacks a high enough ability score to cast spells that would otherwise be his or her due still gets the slots but must fill them with spells of lower level.

Recent Casting Limit

As with arcane spells, at the time of preparation any spells cast within the previous 8 hours count against the number of spells that can be prepared. Those midnight battles triggered by random encounters cut into the next days allotment of spells, a very annoying state of affairs....

Writing Divine Spells

Divine spells can be written down and deciphered just as arcane spells can, using the same system of magical inscription, that is not a language nor subject to linguistics. Any character with the Spellcraft skill can attempt to decipher the divine magical writing and identify it. However, only characters who have the spell in question (in its divine form) on their class spell list can cast a divine spell from a scroll.

New Divine Spells

Divine spellcasters most frequently gain new spells in one of the following two ways.

Spells Gained at a New Level

Characters who can cast divine spells undertake a certain amount of study between adventures. Devout faith (which is a requirement of being a Divine caster) includes much study of the strictures, guidelines, and dogma of your faith, which imparts a strong foundation in the divine magics available to the faithful at each level. Each time such a character receives a new level of divine spells, he or she "learns" (or essentially already knew about) all the new spells from that level automatically, and can recognize those spells when they are granted to them for use by the Deity involved.

Independent Research

An extremely faithful and spiritual divine spellcaster also can "research" a Divine spell independently, exploring the full extent of their Deity's worldly manifestations. In such a way, they may gain deeper insight into their religious doctrine than the typical worshiper, and thus may recognize more aspects of their deific might than most. Only the discoverer of such a deeply personal spell can prepare and cast it, unless they decide to share this deep insight with others.

Special Abilities

A number of classes and creatures gain the use of special abilities, many of which function like spells.

Spell-Like Abilities (Sp)
Usually, a spell-like ability works just like the spell of that name. A spell-like ability has no verbal, somatic, or material component, nor does it require a focus. The user activates it mentally. Armor never affects a spell-like ability's use, even if the ability resembles an arcane spell with a somatic component.
A spell-like ability has a casting time of 1 standard action unless noted otherwise in the ability or spell description. In all other ways, a spell-like ability functions just like a spell.
Spell-like abilities are subject to spell resistance and dispel magic. They do not function in areas where magic is suppressed or negated.
If a character class grants a spell-like ability that is not based on an actual spell, the ability's effective spell level is equal to the highest-level class spell the character can cast, and is cast at the class level the ability is gained.
Activating a spell-like ability provokes attacks of opportunity, unless a Caster Check is made to cast defensively.
Supernatural Abilities (Su)
These can't be disrupted in combat and generally don't provoke attacks of opportunity. They aren't subject to spell resistance, and don't function in anti-magic areas.
Activating a supernatural ability does not provoke attacks of opportunity.
Extraordinary Abilities (Ex)
These abilities cannot be disrupted in combat, as spells can, and they generally do not provoke attacks of opportunity. Effects or areas that negate or disrupt magic have no effect on extraordinary abilities. They are not subject to dispelling, and they function normally in an anti-magic field. Indeed, extraordinary abilities do not qualify as magical, though they may break the laws of physics.
Activating an extraordinary ability does not provoke attacks of opportunity.
Natural Abilities
This category includes abilities a creature has because of its physical nature. Natural abilities are those not otherwise designated as extraordinary, supernatural, or spell-like.
Activating a natural ability does not provoke attacks of opportunity.